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Eurasian Lynx - Lynx lynx
#1
Eurasian Lynx - Lynx lynx

Geographic Range
Eurasian lynx are found throughout Europe and Siberia in forested habitats with sufficient ungulate populations.

Habitat
Eurasian lynx live in forested, mountainous regions far from dense human populations. When young, lynx spend time in trees. In winter, when many animals hibernate or migrate, these cats remain active. Their large, furry feet, serve as snowshoes. Their coat becomes paler and their fur thickens. Only during extremely bad weather do these lynx take shelter in caves, hollow logs, and trees.

Physical Description
Mass : Adult males weigh on average 21.6 kg (n=103), while females are slightly smaller at 18.1 kg (n=93). The lynxes of eastern Siberia consistently reach the greatest size.
These medium-sized cats have stout bodies, long legs, large feet, and stubby tails. All of these characteristics allow them to move quickly over short distances. There are three main coat patterns: predominantly spotted, predominantly striped, and unpatterned. While the spotted-striped types, controlled by the "Tabby" gene, predominate in present reintroduced European lynx populations (originating mainly from the Carpathian mountains further east), Ragni et al. (1993) show through examination of 26 pelts of the original, now extinct, populations of the European Alps that these animals were chiefly unpatterned, and were, moreover, smaller in size. Eurasian lynx have long, prominent black ear tufts, and short black-tipped tails. Lynx activity peaks in the evening and morning hours, with resting mainly around mid-day and midnight (Bernhart 1990). 

Most have a kind of collar of long hair around their necks and under their chins. They are distinctivelyfor their prominent ear tufts--long, black hair on the tips of their ears. Eurasian lynx are also said to have a haughty stare.

Generally, males are larger and more powerful than females. Size differention probably originated from sexual competition in which only the large and powerful males survived to mate.

[Image: lynx_lynx_dc5487.jpg]

Reproduction
Number of offspring : 1 to 4; avg. 2.26
Gestation period : 73 to 74 days
Birth Mass : 246.50 g (average) (8.68 oz)
Time to weaning : 60 to 120 days
Age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female) : 1004 days (average) 
Age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male) : 1004 days (average) 
Courtship lasts a period of about two days. During this time, the male and female chase each other, they hunt together, they sniff and lick each other, and they lie side by side. When the female is ready to mate, she crouches down and raises her tail to alert the male. The male then restrains the female from the back to prevent her from attacking him. When they are finished, they separate quickly while hissing and snarling at each other. They usually mate many times before the male leaves to find another mate. Although females only have one mate each season, males usually have many.

Mating season--the only season that males and females associate--is in the early spring (January-March).

[Image: lynx_lynx_dc5508.jpg]

Awaiting the arrival of her young, the female looks for shelter in caves, hollow logs, and trees. The kittens arrive roughly 70 days after mating. These tiny creatures -- usually one to five in number, weighing 12 ounces on average -- are born with their eyes closed, making them completely dependent on their mother for warmth, food, and protection. The female stays with her kittens constantly until driven to leave by hunger, and even then she is only away for very short periods of time. Males do not participate in parental care.

After two weeks, the kittens open their eyes and are able to keep themselves warm without the help of their mother. The female nurses her young for 3-4 months. At six weeks old, the kittens follow the mother on short trips.

Kittens are active, curious, and skilled at climbing trees using their sharp claws. At one year old, the kittens leave their mother. Males travel longer distances than females, who generally stay close to their mother. At this time, females are able to have young of their own. Males, on the other hand, must wait another year before they can reproduce.

Behavior
Eurasian lynx are shy, secretive cats. Eurasian lynx may live to be 10-12 years old, though they typically live for much less. They are solitary animals. Females hunt with their young in order to teach them proper techniques.

A male's home range usually overlaps several different females' home ranges. Lynx mark their boundaries by urinating on rocks, trees, and stumps. When the time comes to mate, these odors help the male to locate potential females.

In Eurasian lynx, hunting methods are learned by observation and practice. Rather than smelling their prey, lynx depend on their extraordinary sense of hearing along with sight. Eurasian lynx spend time grooming themselves in order to keep clean and scratch on surface in order to keep their claws sharp. They are most active in early morning and late afternoon.

Winter brings both problems and advantages to Eurasian lynx populations. These cats can be easily seen against the snow in wintertime because of the lack of grass to hide behind. They resort to hiding behind rocks at this time of the year. Moving through the snow, on the otherhand, is easy for these cats because of their large, fur-covered feet that prevent them from sinking into the snow. When Eurasian lynx are discovered by a predator, they stand still and stare.

Food Habits
Eurasian lynx are strictly carnivorous, feeding primarily on small mammals and ground-dwelling birds. Mammalian prey includes roe deer, chamois, hares, marmots, foxes, and squirrels. As is true of all cats, Eurasian lynx are skillful hunters and spend a large part of their time each day in the pursuit of prey.

[Image: lynx_lynx_6710.jpg]

Since they can only run fast for short distances, Eurasian lynx must surprise their prey. Keeping low to the ground, European lynx attack unsuspecting animals from close range. Once the animal is caught, lynx bite the neck, cutting the spinal cord. If the animal is too large, lynx merely hold the throat of the animal until it suffocates. Their razor-sharp teeth cut through the flesh efficiently. Portions of the prey that are not immediately consumed are cached and retrieved later.

In some parts of their range, lynx prey mainly on large ungulate species (mostly females or young), including red deer (Hell 1973, Gossow and Honsig-Erlenburg 1986, Jedrzejewski et al. 1993), reindeer (Haglund 1966, Bjärvall 1992), and argali (Matjuschkin 1978). Lynx are capable of killing prey 3-4 times their own size (Gossow and Honsig-Erlenburg 1986, Haller 1992). 

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Where their natural prey populations are low, Eurasian lynx sometimes prey on domestic animals. Hunters also complain that lynx kill deer.

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Eurasian lynx have been hunted for their soft pelts. Currently hunting is prohibited or regulated throughout most of their range.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List: Near Threatened.
US Federal List: No special status.
CITES: Appendix II.
Eurasian lynx populations once flourished in many countires of Europe until they almost became extinct in the mid-1900's. Their numbers were drastically reduced as a result of hunting and trapping for their fur. Their habitats (forested areas) also were slowly being destroyed. In the 1970's, great concern lead to taking lynx from areas where they were abundant in Europe and releasing them in the forested mountains of Switzerland, Austria, and Germany. They adjusted well in this new area, except for the lack of their natural prey. Unfortunately, they turned to preying on flocks and herds of domestic animals. Reintroductions have been moderately successful.

Other Comments
Contrary to popular belief, Eurasian lynx don't climb trees to wait and pounce on their prey, but merely to escape danger. As humans, we tend to be frightened of the lynx, but they rarely attack humans. They may, however, follow humans through the woods, simply watching from a distance out of what we think to be curiosity.

[Image: lynx_lynx_dc5486.jpg]

Sources :
http://lynx.uio.no/jon/lynx/eulynx1.htm
http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Lynx_lynx.html
[Image: wildcat10-CougarHuntingDeer.jpg]
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  • Claudiu Constantin Nicolaescu, Shenzi
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#2
Eurasian Lynx predation on Red Foxes

Quote:"The fox-lynx relationship is especially complicated as both compete for the same prey, lynx often kill foxes, foxes can scavenge on lynx kills, and lynx occasionally die from scabies infections that can originate from foxes."
scandlynx.nina.no/pdf/NINA_Rapport_86.pdf 

This one too is from Sweden and is the abstract of a study :

"There is a growing focus among ecologists on the importance of predatory interactions between competing species, but because of its mixed character. it is difficult to pinpoint the possible, competitive component of the interaction. We tested degree of prey consumption in intraguild predation of Eurasian lynxes on red foxes against assumed 'pure' predation. i.e, roe deer and mountain hares. The proportion of uneaten fox carcasses was highly significantly larger than the proportion of both other prey species, indicating that interference competition may play a role in the intraguild predation of lynxes on red foxes."

Intraguild predation of lynxes on foxes: evidence of interference competition? 
Ecography 22 (5), 521–523. 
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs...alCode=eco

Quote:Another study:

Lynx (Lynx lynx) killing red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in boreal Sweden – frequency and population effects

We studied the frequency and pattern of lynx Lynx lynx predation on red foxes Vulpes vulpes in boreal Sweden by the radio tracking of foxes and the snow tracking of lynx. We also assessed the population trend of red foxes after the re-establishment of lynx in the region, based on various population indices. Fifty per cent of recorded fox mortalities in the radio-tracking study (four of eight) were lynx kills. Adult-sized foxes killed by lynx during radio tracking were in normal condition and of prime age, and were killed after the assumed annual population bottleneck. Albeit based on a small number of kills, this pattern may suggest that lynx predation, at least to some extent, is additive to other mortality in foxes. The annual lynx predation rate was 14% on radio-tracked foxes and 4% on snow-tracked foxes. The population indices of foxes in the main study area decreased by about 10% annually during the study period. The population decrease could potentially be explained by lynx predation alone, but we acknowledge some alternative explanations. Our results point out the possibility that red fox populations can be significantly limited by allowing lynx populations to recover.

http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs...06.00172.x



Gato Gordo Wrote: HUNTING & FEEDING HABITS of EURASIAN LYNX 

Some time ago I posted in ezboard a thread documenting
the feeding and hunting habits of Eurasian lynx in Central-Eastern
Europe. I would like to post for carnivora a slightly different version of
the same thread.

I will post extracts of these two articles:

[Image: novichi00.jpg]

[Image: jed01.jpg]

LYNX PREDATION: SIZE OF PREDATOR VS SIZE OF PREY

The article: "Food habits and diet of the lynx in Europe", by P.Nowicki

[Image: novichi00.jpg]

discusses various important issues, such as the relation between
predator size and prey, as well as the ecological reasons making a
predator specialize in prey of a given weight.

The  thus it corroborates that lynx (in spite of being mostly a hunter
of small ungulates) have been documented as able to kill adult male
red deer.
Although these are winter kills in Austria, Poland,
Belarus and the Carpatian mountains, this is an impressive feat since it
is a regular pattern happening every winter (compare it with wolverines
hunting an adult moose 7 times in 30-40 years).

[Image: novichi01.jpg]

The article mentions a very important idea: The dependence of the
lynx in small ungulates is not as strict as it may seem. Furthermore,
predator-prey relationships are are much more complex as not only does
the body size of the lynx define the size of the potential victims, but
also the size of prey affects the body weight of lynx. Foraging on
larger animals leads to an increase in the weight of the predator in
consequence of evolutionary process of adaptation as well as of
acquiring better physical condition.


This effect of prey size on the lynx size is llustrated by the data:

[Image: novichi02.jpg]

As the table shows, there is a striking difference in lynx body sizes
between eastern Finland, where they only hunt hare, and in Austria and
Poland, where they mostly hunt ungulates and large ones like red deer
and wild boar (even if not always adult) form a large perecentage of
their diet.

The article discusses other factors influencing lynx's prey size:

(1) Competition with other predators. Wolves take red deer, moose and
even bisons, while foxes hunt hares and rodents. Avoidance of
competition with these predators naturally leaves lynx the niche of
small ungulates. While lynx will hunt a larger percentage of large prey
(red deer and reindeer) in areas without an established wolf population
(Norway and Austria), they only hunt small antelopes and hares in other
areas without wolves (Switzerland and the Czech republic). However,
lynxes in these latter areas are reintroduced, so their avoidance of
large prey simply means that they keep the foraging habits of their
regions of origin. This is important, since it shows how foraging
patterns take time to hold (more time than the few decades of a
re-introduced population).

(2) Scavenging pressure from ravens, foxes, wild boar and bears. Since a
lynx can consume a maximum of 3.5 kg of meat from a fresh kill, even if
various lynx eat from a kill (female with kittens), most food will be
eaten by scavengers, thus even if capable of killing large prey (say, a
100 kg red deer), this represents too much energy expenditure without
the extra benefit.

(3) The fast decay of a carcass in summer and its fast deep freezing in
winter also makes it unprofitable for the lynx to hunt large prey. The
jaws and teeth of the lynx do not bite frozen meat efficiently. Here we
see a difference of design with respect to the wolverine, whose jaws are
well suited to bite and process frozen meat. This fact gives apparently
an edge to the wolverine, though not as a hunter of large game but as a
scavenger of frozen carcasses. In very northerly areas without small
ungulates (east Finland and northern Siberia) the lynx reverts to
hunting hares and other arctic small game.

Further, lynx tend to be very adaptable and will prey on the most common
prey available, constrained by the factors discussed: without pressure
from competition with wolves or scavangers (Austria), it will hunt even
adult male red deer.


LYNX HUNTING AND FORAGING IN EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA

Foraging by lynx and its role in ungulate mortality: the local
(Bialowieza Forest) and the Paleoarctic viewpoints, Jedrzejewski W. et
al, 1993, Acta theriologica 38: 385-403


[Image: jed01.jpg]


This is an important research work with detailed and systematic
observations spanning 7 years, in the Bielowieza forest, split between
Poland and Belorussia, as well as in the paleoarctic region of northwest
Russia.

[Image: jed02.jpg]

The fauna in the Bielowieza Forest is made by 5 ungulate species (roe
deer, red deer, wild boar, moose and European bison) and two predators:
lynx and wolf (bears were exterminated).

[Image: jedPredPreyPop03.jpg]

The study follows a careful and systematical methodology by examination
of carcasses and snow tracks to determine prey species, age and sex.

[Image: jed04.jpg]


Lynx hunts compared with the existing population is shown in this table.
Lynx predate on roe deer, red deer and (in lesser quantities) on wild
boar.

[Image: jed05.jpg]


Lynx take roe deer of all sexes/ages, as distributed in the general
population (no age/sex selection), however for the larger red deer the
lynx were not seen (in the Polish part of the forest) to take adult
males.  This is shown in the following table

[Image: jedTablePreyType06.jpg]



The decomposition of lynx prey by ages is given below. Notice that lynx
do not kill adult male red deer, but THE TWO KILLED WILD BOAR WERE
BOTH ADULTS


[Image: wugk956.jpg]


Dragging of carcasses (from 2 to 75 meters) is obviously more frequent
with roe deer, but also happens with red deer (3 of 10 cases). Notice
how the carcass of an adult wild boar was dragged for 8 meters

[Image: jed08.jpg]


Scavengers: the lynx faces various scavengers, such as wild
boars, cravens, foxes, martens and wolves. However, only wild boar take
the kill from the lynx and consume it freshly killed. So, wild boar
drive away lynx from fresh kills as (supposedly) the wolverine does with
large predators.

[Image: jedScavengers09.jpg]


The lynx is sympatric (shares ecosystem) with the wolf. The following
table shows how both predators share the prey basis. As expected, the
larger predator takes larger prey, more red deer and wild boar
proportion, as well as moose and bison:

[Image: jed10.jpg]

Competition between wolves and lynxes forces the lynx to specialize in
smaller prey, while the wolves take more red deer:

[Image: jed111.jpg]

[Image: jed112.jpg]

While lynx select smaller prey, they are capable of taking down large
animals, such as adult wild boar and red deer. As reported, in the
Polish section of the Bielowieza forest lynx only took adult female red
deer, however THREE ADULT MALE RED DEER WERE REPORTED KILLED BY LYNX
in the Belorussian section of the forest.
Russian sources (Danilov
et al, Birkeland and Myrberget, Malefeev et al, Filonov) reported lynx
killing moose, young and sick specimens (most likely in deep snow).

Notice how lynx have been reported to be able to kill adult wild boar
(dragging the carcass for 8 meters) and adult male red deer (up to 200
kg).

[Image: jed121.jpg]

[Image: jed122.jpg]

There is no comparison between the Eurasian lynx and the Canadian one,
which almost only hunts small game (hares). With recorded weights of up
to 34 kg (75 lbs), it is the largest of the small cats. Studies of lynx
in its whole range (including the paleoarctic region, the Carpatian
mountains, central Asia and Siberia) show this cat preying on all
ungulate species except the bison (but including red deer and moose).

[Image: jed13.jpg]

The global range of lynx prey, from roe deer up to moose is illustrated
in the following table. While capable of killing red deer, moose and
wild boar, lynx predation on these large ungulates has a minimal
ecological impact (see the small numbers in the table). On the other
hand, lynx predation is very important in smaller antelopes.



[Image: jedTableGlobPred14.jpg]

SUMMARY & SOME COMMENTARIES


Ecological niches

The lynx occupies in north and west Eurasia an ecological niche of a mid
size predator. It is a midsize predator (the largest feline in its
habitat) hunting mostly smaller cervides (roe deer) year round, with
some dependence in small game and with the occasional venture into
killing large prey in deep snow conditions (red deer and adult boar).
Wolves, on the other hand, fill the niche of larger predators
specializing  in large prey (wild boar, red deer, moose and even bison).

Wolves and lynx coexist without much record of agressive encounters
mostly because they partition the prey basis, with lynx taking
(preferably) the smaller roe deer and wolf taking larger kills.

While lynxes can also kill large prey (mostly in Austria where wolves
are absent), it is not very profitable to do it: a 20-27 kg animal
doesn't need so much food intake and large kills can be lost to
scavengers, freeze in winter or rot in summer. Large kills are also more
risky and may not offset the benefit of extra meat.

The two papers whose extracts I have posted show that lynx can kill 200
kg adult male red deer (slightly smaller than elk) and adult boar (at
least 80 kg). These are impressive kills for a 25 kg predator !

In comparison with North America, the lynx occupies a niche that is in
the middle between that of the bobcat/coyote and that of the
cougar/wolf.

Lynx vs wolverine

The wolverine is mostly a scavanger and less a hunter. They are roughly
of the same size as the Eurasian lynx and when both coexist
(Scandinavia) the wolverine benefits from scavenging lynx kills.
Wolverines have been recorded (one instance) of taking lynx kills, but
there is no reliable record of agressive interactions or fights between
them.

The only reference I know reporting a lynx surrendering a kill to a
wolverine is: Winter lynx predation on semi-domestic reindeer in
northern Sweden, by J.D.C. Pedersen et al, 1999, Wildl Biol, 5:
203-211


For every "hunting feat" of the wolverine there is a similar "hunting
feat" by the lynx, however the wolverine has a "ferocity legend" proped
up by several noted mustelide fans, while the lynx has no such
reputation.

- The Swedish wild life scientist B. Haglund mentions in a 1974 article
"Moose relations with predators in Sweden. with special relation to bear
and wolverine", that he recals seven incidents in 3-4 decades of a
wolverine killing adult moose in wintery conditions (even if probably
not trampled by deep snow).

- However, in the same article Haglund mentions from many sources
(including Russian sources) that this is extremely rare and that most of
the moose consumed by wolverines is cavenged and, if the moose is
killed, it occurs in conditions of enormous disadvantage to the
ungulate.

- The Eurasian lynx has also been recorded killing young and ill adult
moose in Russia (see Jedrzewski'sarticle), but perhaps there are no
cases like those few reported by Haglund. However, lynx kill adult red
deer (male and female) with regularity in certain ecosystems (see
Nowicki's article), a regularity that wolverines lack. While red deer is
smaller than moose, it is still an impressive take (equivalent to North
American elk).

- Wolverines may be able to kill in winter 300 kg adult moose once in a blue moon,
but lynxes in Austria kill 200 kg male adult red deer every winter EVERY
YEAR. So, the lynx IMO comes out (probably) better as a killer of large
antelopes.

The two cases of lynx killing adult boar are also impressive, even if
we are talking about winter kills so the boars could be in poor shape
or trampled by deep snow.

If a scientific article would have reported a wolverine killing these suids,
this would already be regarded by lots of folks as one more "proof"
of the wolverine ferocity, yet, since a lynx did it then it doesn't have
the same spin.



Comparison with the clouded leopard (CL) 

The CL is roughly of the same size as the Eurasian lynx but it has a
much stronger build: with larger canines, claws and superior bite force.

While morphological studies reveal that the CL should be able to kill large
animals, there is little empiric data confirming this (likely they could be hunting
large deer or adult wild pig or cattle).  The comparisn with the Eurolynx could
provide some guidelines here. 

If the Eurasian lynx is able to kill regularly adult red deer female and,
occasionaly, red deer stag and adult boar in snowy conditions, 
it seems to be reasonable to assume that the stronger CL 
would be able to kill this type/size of animals without snow.


Some pics - 

[Image: eulynx1.jpg]

[Image: eulynx2.jpg]

[Image: eulynx3.jpg]

[Image: eulynx4.jpg]

[Image: eulynx5.jpg]



Eurasian Lynx hunting success rate against Reindeer (Caribou)

[Image: linSuccRate05.jpg]

83% against a larger prey animal is a fantastic result!
[Image: wildcat10-CougarHuntingDeer.jpg]
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#3
Pars Wrote:THE DIET AND COMPETITORS OF EURASIAN LYNX IN ITS RANGE

French Pyrenees: Analysis of 30 scats indicated that medium and small prey form 75-76% of lynx food in the Pyrenees. The most frequent prey identified belong to the genera Pitymis (pine voles), Microtus (grass voles), Talpa (moles), Sorex (shrews), Marmota (marmots), Glis (dormice), Lepus (hares), Vulpes (foxes) and Martes (martins). Other genera found regularly, but less frequently, were Capreolus (roedeer), Rupicapra (chamois) and Sus (wild boar). The last were only newly-delivered young. Birds identified included jay Garrulus glandarius, wood pigeon Colomba palumbus and various thrushes Turdus spp. No proof was found of predation on capercaillie Tetrao urogallus or wildcat Felis sylvestris. 

Predation on domestic animals is rare. However, sheep and goats are uncommon in the lynx zones. It is possible that lynx were involved in attacks on flocks in Béarn in 1972, but it is too late to find out. In Ariège, flocks are present in lynx zones only in summer, but the lynx are at lower elevations. Rare, infrequent, lynx attacks have been reported. There are few sheep and goats in the eastern Pyrenees, which are on the fringe of desertification (CAT NEWS, Issue 14, Spring 1991 by Luc Chazel).

Other possible ungulate preys are mouflon introduced in Carlit massive and elk (central and eastern forests of the chain. Forest of d’Iraty, de la Barousse and du Luchonnais.) 

Elk, Roe deer, Chamois and Mouflon co exist in Ariege (Central Pyrennees). 

Prey Selection of Eurasian Lynx in Switzerland


North Western Alps (NWA), Central Alps (CA), Jura Mountains (JM) and Northeastern Switzerland (NECH)


Roe deer Capreolus capreolus, Chamois Rupicapra rupicapra, Red fox Vulpes vulpes, Brown hare Lepus europaeus , White hare L. Timidus, Sheep Ovis ammon, Marmot Marmota marmota, Stone marten Martes foina, House cat Felis domesticus, Red deer Cervus elaphus, Goat Capra aegagrus, Pine marten Martes martes, Wild cat Felis sylvestris, Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus, Black grouse Tetrao tetrix, Squirrel Sciurus vulgaris 

Results

The number of different species in the lynx’s diet ranged within 4-9, depending on the study site and/or period (see Table). Nevertheless, lynx diets were generally similar among sites. Roe deer and chamois made up 80% of prey items in all study areas. Only one red deer was killed, and neither ibex nor wild boar were found in our sample. Red foxes, brown hares and mountain hares were the most important non-ungulate prey species. (Breitenmo-ser-Würsten et al. 2001, Breitenmoser-Würsten et al. 2007). 

IN THE ITALIAN ALPS 

PAOLO MOLINARI, LUCA ROTELLI, MARCO CATELLO, BRUNO BASSANO


RESULTS 

From 1995 to 1999, a total of 261 signs of lynx presence were recorded in the Italian 

Tarvisio Belluno Trento Val d’Ossola Val d’Aosta Total 
Roe deer (C. capreolus) 10 2 1 1 1 15 
Red deer (Cer-vus elaphtis) 9 
Chamois (R. rupicupru) 1 2 2 5
Ibex (Capra ibex) 1 1 
Marmot (M. marmotu) 1 1

The prey species killed indicated a difference in prey selection in the eastern and western Alps. In the Tarvisiano, where red deer (Cervus elaphus) is very common, they were often killed. In the Val d’Aosta, where red deer is rare but ibex (Capra ibex) are common, ibex was reported as lynx prey. However, we need more data to confirm this trend. The inquiry revealed that 30% of all provinces state that lynx is present in their territory, in 37% of the provinces lynx is absent and 33% have no information about lynx presence. 

Lynx Diet in Norway: 146 scats: Reindeer (% 39), Roe Deer (% 21.9), Unidentified deer (5.5), Hares (24), Rodents: especially Microtinae (9.6), Birds (13), Domestic animals (6.2), Carnivores (4.8)

Lynx Diet in Sweden: 158 scats: Reindeer (% 34.2), Roe Deer (% 20.3), Unidentified deer (5.5), Hares (24.1), Birds (13.3), Carnivores (1.3), miscellanous (6.3)

Lynx Diet in Southeastern Finland: 88 scats: Hares (% 79.5), Rodents (3.2), Birds (7.4), Domestic animals (4.9), Carnivores (0.8)

Diet in Tavastland (Central parts of Southern Finland): Introduced White Tailed Deer, Hare

Tatras National Park Slovakia: Lynx, Brown Bear, Wolf, Boar, Red Deer, Roe Deer, Chamois, Marmot, Hare, Red Fox, Badger

Bialowieza Forest (Poland/Bellarus): During cold season, in the pristine forest: red deer (%61), roe deer (%28), in exploited forest. Roe deer and red deer (%87), european hare (%11), wild boar (%2), amongst ungulates % 76 were roe deer. Lynx have been reported to kill adult wild boar (dragged 8 m.) and adult male red deer (200 kg.) % 36 of Red deer killed by lynx wer adult female and % 64 were juveniles. 

In the Belarussian part of the Bialowieza Forest, Sostak and Bunevic (1986 ) determined the sex and age of 29 red deer killed by lynx

- 20 ( or about 70% ) were < 1 year

- 3 (or about 10% ) were adult males

- 6 (or about 20% ) were adult females

red deer constitute in other regions a much higer % of the lynx diet: about 60% in the Eastern Alps and 35% in the Carpation region

Fauna: 58 species of mammal. european bison, moose, wild boar, red deer, roe deer, wolf, beaver, eurasian badger, otter, red fox, tanuki, european hare, marten

Lynx have been recorded bringing down adult male red deer (200 kg) 

- Lynx regularly take smaller roe deer and female and young red deer. Cases of lynx taking red deer stag were recorded in the Belarussian section of the forest. 
- Lynx have also killed wild boar: "the 2 wild boar killed by lynx that were aged were both adults". 



% of large ungulates in lynx diet (red deer): 60% in Eastern Alps (Austria), 33% in Bialowieza forest (Poland and Belarus) 

Carpatian Mountains: Wild boar (85 – 320 kg. % 5 of hunted ungulates), Red deer (80 – 224kg., % 31 of hunted ungulates), Roe deer (17 – 26, % 64 of hunted ungulates), carnivores (% 12 of preys: red fox, marten, badger, weasel, dog, wild cat) and others )…

Lagodekhi Natural Reserve (Greater Caucasus Georgia, mountain deciduous forests and alpine meadows): 40 species of mammals. Lynx, Brown Bear, Wolf, Wild Boar, Red deer, Roe deer, Chamois, Badger, Marmot, Hare, Red fox, Caucasian mole, Pontic wood mouse, Shelkownikow’ s water shrew, Promethe’ s vole, Otter, Wood Marten, Rock Marten, Jungle Cat

Caucasian Reserve, Russia: European bison (300- 920 kg., % 0), Wild boar (85 – 320 kg. % 8 of hunted ungulates), Red deer (80 – 224kg., % 16 of hunted ungulates), Caucasian ibex (30 - 155, % 36), Chamois (25 – 36 kg. % 33 of hunted ungulates), Roe deer (17 – 26, % 7 of hunted ungulates) and others…

Bashkir Reserve, Russia: Mouse (195 - 382 kg., % 6 of hunted ungulates), Wild boar (85 – 320 kg. %0), Red deer (80 – 224kg., % 68 of hunted ungulates), Roe deer (17 – 26, % 26 of hunted ungulates) and others (rodents, birds and hares)

Khunjerab National Park, Pakistan (Chinese Border): Snow leopard, Himalayan Ibex, Siberian Ibex, Bharal (in Shimshal area only), Argali, Tibetan wild ass( Kiang ), Cape hare, Golden Marmot, Large-eared Pika, Common field mouse, Royle's mountain vole, Lesser shrew, Migratory hamster, Ermine, Alpine weasle, Stone Marten, Lynx (Unconfirmed reports), Dhole (Unconfirmed reports), Brown bear, Tibetan red fox, Tibetan wolf.

Baltistan Wildlife Sanctuary: Snow Leopard, Brown Bear, Wolf, Lynx, Tibetan fox. Asiatic Ibex, Markhor, Bharal, Urial

Hemis High Altitude National Park Jammu Kashmir, Ladakh India: Tibetan Argali, Ibex, Urial, Bharal. The National park is famous for its population of the rare Snow Leopards. Ungulates: Ibex, Tibetan argali, Ladakh urial, Tibetan antelope (Chiru, extremely rare) and Kiang Tibetan wild ass (4 000 m. and above), wild yak. The bharal and urial are seen in large numbers. Wooly Hare, Pika, Himalayan marmot (bobak), rhesus macaque (5 – 11 kg.), Hanuman langur (16 – 21 kg.). The other main species recorded in the National park are Lynx, Pallas cat, srapu, wolf, dhole, red fox, etc. 

Pin Valley National Park Himachal Pradesh, India: snow leopard, wolf, lynx, Ibex, Bharal, Tibetan gazelle and marmots, porcupine, weasels, lizards and rare species like the wooly hare, Red Indian Fox, Himalayan brown fox, common langur, rhesus macaque etc. Prominent birds are Himalayan snow cock, chakar partridge, hill pigeon, yellow and red bill chough, coots.

Qomolangma Nature Preserve (Tibetan part of Mt. Everest): 

Ungulates: in forests: Wild Boar (Sus scrofa), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), serow (Capricornis serow), and Barking Deer (Munticus muntjak), 

In plateaus and higher elevation: Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus), Tibetan gazelle (Procapra piticaudata), Bharal (Pseudois nayaur), Goral (Nemorhaedus goral) and Musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster). Tibetan argali (Ovis ammon hodgsoni) (may be extirpated)

Bharal (Pseudois nayaur), Kiang (Equus kiang) and Tibetan gazelle (Procapra piticaudata) are widely distributed, Tibetan argali (Ovis ammon hodgsoni) appears to be on the verge of extirpation. East Himalayan goral (Naemorhedeus goral goral) and musk deer (Moschus chyrosgaster) are poorly documented

Other species include: Himalayan marmot (Marmota himalayensis), Black-Lipped Pika (Ochotona curzoniae), Moupin pika (O. Thibethana), Royle's pika (O. Roylei), Stoliczka's mountain vole (Alticola stoliczkanus), Sikkim vole (Pitymys sikimensis), Blyth's vole (P. Leucurus), Hodgson's flying squirrel (Petaurista magnificus) and Himalayan striped squirrel (Callosciurus macclellandi). Orange-bellied Himalayan squirrel (Dremomys lokriah) is found in low elevation forests. tibetan snowcock

Primates include langur (Presbytis entellus), Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis) and rhesus macaque ((5 – 11 kg.)M. Mulatta). 

Carnivores include Himalayan black bear Selenarctos thibetanus (V), brown bear Ursus arctos (rare), snow leopard Panthera uncia (E), leopard Panthera pardus (T) (in low forests), clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa (V), Pallas's cat Felis manul, wolf Canis lupus (V), Asiatic golden cat Felis temmincki (I), jungle cat Felis chaus, wild dog Cuon alpinus (V), leopard cat Felis bengalensis and jackal Canis aureus. Lynx Felis lynx is found in lower forested valleys, while fox Vulpes vulpes and Tibetan fox Vulpes ferrilata are widespread. Mountain weasel Mustela altaica, Siberian weasel M. sibirica, beech marten Martes foina, and yellow-throated marten M. flavigula are present, and European otter Lutra lutra (V) occurs in rivers at lower elevations and. red panda Ailurus fulgene.

Altai Mountains Reserve, Russia: Mouse (195 - 382 kg., %0), Wild boar (85 – 320 kg. %0), Red deer (80 – 224kg., % 15 of hunted ungulates), Siberian ibex (30 - 155, % 0), Roe deer (17 – 26, % 68 of hunted ungulates), Siberian musk deer (15 – 17, % 17 of hunted ungulates) and others…

Aertai Mountains (Western China): Roe Deer (% 61.7), Argali (% 13.3), Siberian Ibex (%12.9), Red Deer (% 1.6), Wild Boar (% 0.9), Lepus timidus (% 9.1), Ochotona alpine (% 2.6), Citellus undulatus (% 2.5), Lyrurus tetrix ((% 0.6), Alectoris graeca (% 0.3), Tetragallus tibetanus (% 0.2), Tetrao urogallus (% 0.1)

Tianshan Mountains (Western China): Cape Hare (%39.1) Siberian ibex (%17.4), Argali (%14.7), Roe deer (%9.7), Red deer (% 7.1), Bobak Marmot (% 10), Livestock (%6.1), Ochotona roylei (%2.9), Alectoris graeca (% 0.3), Tetragallus tibetanus (% 0.2)

Kunlun/Aerjin Mountain Pamir Plateau (Western China): Bharal (%63.8), Tibetan antelope (%3.9), Tibetan gazelle (%2.1), Lepus ciostolus (%14.4), Himalayan marmot (% 9.5), Ochotona cursonise (%5.5), Tetragallus tibetanus (% 0.8)

Big Pamir (part of eastern pamir, Tadjikistan): Snow Leopard, Lynx, Brown Bear, Wolf, Fox, Argali, Ibex, Urial, Long Tailed Marmot, Pika, Hare 

Issik Gol, Kyrghizistan: Snow Leopard, Brown Bear and Lynx. Wild Boar, Elk, Roe Deer, Argali, Ibex, Saiga, Mongolian Gazelle, Marmot, Red Fox, Badger, Muskrat 

Lake Khovsgol National Park (Northwestern Mongolia): habitat for 68 species of mammals, including snow leopard, moose, elk, reindeer (domesticated), musk deer, argali, ibex, brown bear, lynx, marten, beaver, wolf

Gobi Gurvansaikhan National Park (West Mongolia, Gurvansaikhan Mountains is an extension into the Gobi of the Altais): Fifty-two species of mammals are found here, including eight species listed in the Mongolian Red Book as endangered. Small herds of wild ass (khulan) and black-tailed (goittered) and Mongolian gazelle roam the desert valleys and desert steppe, while the mountains provide suitable habitat for threatened and endangered animals such as argali, Siberian ibex, and snow leopard. Lynx, wolf, and bactrian camels.

Great Gobi Protected Area: The Protected area is devided into two ecologically distinct parts, Southern Altai ('Gobi A") and the Dzungarian Gobi ("Gobi B"), separated by 300 km. Scientists have identified 410 species of plants, 49 species of mammals, 15 reptiles and amphibians and over 150 bird species.

Wild Bactrian Camel, Asiatic Wild Ass or Khulan, Przewalski Horse or Takhi, Elk, Argali, Ibex, Saiga, Goittered Gazelle, Jerboa, Gobi Bear, Snow Leopard, Gobi Lynx, Wolf, Fox, and Tatar Sand Boa, Gecko

Pars Wrote:AVERAGE WEIGHTS OF LYNX IN DIFFERENT REGIONS:

Adult males weigh on average 21.6 kg (n=103), while females are slightly smaller at 18.1 kg (n=93). The lynxes of eastern Siberia consistently reach the greatest size. Body Length(mm) -800-1300. Weight (kg): 18-35 k.g. (38 kg. record, not relaible records from Ukranian Carparthians 41 kg. and Romanian Carparthians 48 kg.) Males usually weigh from 18 to 30 kg (40 to 66 lb) and females weigh 18.1 kg (40 lb) on average (Peter Jackson). Average weight including both sexes: 17 (Per Christiensen & Stephen Wroe).

Average female and male weights: Eastern Finland (15.1-16.8), Western Finland (16.6 – 19.2), Sweden (14.1- 19.9), Eastern Alps-Austria (19.2- 26.4), Bialowieza Forest- Poland (20.1 - 27.2) in poland in other resources 21.7 for males (19.0 - 25), in Central Russia Europe ( 17.3-19.6)
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#4
Kurtz Wrote:From FelinePowah

http://www.naturalsciences.be/institute/...079-80.pdf

Killing techniques differ among different groups of
carnivores. Since felids are mostly solitary hunters, each
bite must be made with precision, and must be positioned
to kill the prey as soon as possible to avoid possible risks
to the predator during the struggle (1). It has been previously
reported that felids kill mainly by suffocation
caused by a bite into the throat or muzzle, or by severing
the spinal cord with a bite into the nape (2-5). Leyhausen
(3) noted that the throat bites are more likely when killing
larger prey.
Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx Linnaeus, 1758) and the grey
wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758) are the main predators
of ungulates in Europe. When attacking large prey, the
lynx usually kills it with a neck bite, either from below, or
from above into the nape (6; 7). So far the majority of
authors have reported that when biting from below, the
lynx suffocates its prey by biting its throat or windpipe
(6-10). Suffocation by means of a bite on the larynx was
also reported as a killing technique for the Iberian lynx
(Lynx pardinus Temminck, 1827) when hunting ungulates
(11).
In this paper we present preliminary results from an
ongoing study on the ecology of the Eurasian lynx in the
Dinaric Mountains in Slovenia. The lynx there hunt
mainly roe deer (Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus, 1758),
red deer (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758), fat dormouse
(Glis glis Linnaeus, 1766) and to a lesser extent other
rodents, chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra Linnaeus, 1758),
red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758), and birds
(KROFEL, unpublished data1). Two other species of large
carnivore are also present in the study area; the brown
bear (Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758) and the grey wolf.
We determined the method of killing through autopsy
of lynx prey remains. We searched for wounds made by
canines and claws inflicted premortem on the outer and
inner side of the skin. We also inspected all deeper injuries

injuries
and recorded their exact location using veterinary
anatomical atlases (12; 13).
In 13 cases (ten roe deer, two red deer, and one chamois),
the prey remains were found early enough for the
bite marks to be studied. In all the cases lynx killed their
prey with a bite in the neck region. In eight (62%)
instances, the bite was from the ventral side of the neck
only, in three (23%) cases only from the dorsal side, and
in two (15%) cases bite marks could be distinguished on
both sides of the neck.
In nine cases we performed a more detailed autopsy of
the region with the bite marks. In five out of the six cases
(83%) where the bite was delivered from the ventral side,
we could find injuries in the region of the common
carotid artery (a. carotis communis) and the truncus vagosympathicus
(Fig. 1). In three out of these five cases the
laryngeal cartilages and/or windpipe were damaged. In
only one case the injuries inflicted by teeth were
restricted to the windpipe.
Our observations indicate that, when biting from
below, the bite into the throat causing suffocation might
not always be crucial for the killing of a large prey by a
lynx. The injuries observed in regions other than the
throat could have been inflicted incidentally when the
lynx missed the windpipe or larynx, but it is also possible
that the lynx intentionally aimed for some other vulnerable
points. The latter is not unlikely, as it is possible that
the bites into the region of the common carotid artery and
truncus vagosympathicus could accelerate death of the
prey. It is known from forensic studies on humans that
pressure on the carotid sinus (located at the origin of
internal carotid artery near the end of lower jaw), which
contains numerous baroreceptors, can result in bradycardia
or in a total cardiac arrest and immediate death (14;
15). This mechanism of death is known as vagal inhibition,
reflex cardiac arrest or carotid sinus reflex. Unfortunately,
we could not find any data about this mechanism
in other mammals, but we assume that it can also occur in
other species, including lynx prey. If the lynx is indeed
taking advantage of this reflex death in its killing technique,
this would be beneficial for the predator, as it
would shorten the struggle with the prey and in turn
decrease the chances for injury. Such injuries may not be
negligible, as was for example indicated by high mortality
sustained by cougars during hunting.

k9boy Wrote:Caching prey in trees by Eurasian lynx:

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF03192475

if someone can embed or link the full article that would be good

the 2nd account describes a lynx carrying a 4 year old roe deer male up a tree. Roe deer are apparently 15-35kg, and this account occured in the czech republic, where lynx males average 21.8kg (this lynx was described as big, so i assume its a male).

The deer could very well have been similar weight to the lynx.
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#5
2.2. Phylogenetic history and subspecies
The lynx-like cats are united in one genus (Lynx) with four species (lynx, pardinus, rufus, and canadensis). They occur nowadays in the northern hemisphere only: L. lynx and L. pardinus in the Palaearctic, L. rufus and L. cana-densis in the Nearctic. Lynx pardinus, the Iberian lynx, was always restricted to the Iberian Peninsula south of the Pyrenees, whereas the entire remaining area in the Old World from the Atlantic coast in Europe to the Pacific Ocean in the Far East is generally regarded as the area of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). Over such an extended range, stretching not only from west to east, but also from south to north across several climatic zones and differ-ent habitats, a differentiation on the level of subspecies is to be expected, not only due to the geographic (and ecological) distance, but also as a consequence of the repeated isolation and merging of sub-areas during the Pleistocene glaciations. The lynx distribution during the last ice age and the subsequent recolonisation of Europe has to be considered for the reconstruction of the (pre)historic range as well as for the possible differentiation of subspecies. Morphologic differences and palaeontologic and zoo-geographic considerations (MIRIC 1974, MIRIC 1978, MATJUSCHKIN 1978, WERDELIN 1981, HEMMER 1993, HEMMER 2001, MATYUSHKIN & VAISFELD 2003) are today complemented with genetic findings (HELLBORG et al. 2002, BREITENMOSER-WÜRSTEN & OBEXER-RUFF 2003, RUE-NESS et al. 2003), but there is no final agreement on the classification of subspecies yet. From all these works, we compile what we believe to be at present the best possible interpretation of the distribution of recent subspecies in Europe (Fig. 2.5).

[Image: EurasianLynxSubspecies_zpsda179700.jpg]

Assuming that the lynx’ ecology during the late Pleistocene was not completely different from the recent species (chapter 2.4), we can speculate that the recolonisation followed the expansion of forests and prey. Some regions that we today intuitively regard as “good” lynx habitat were also so during the late Pleistocene, other areas however were not. The Alps, for instance, were entirely glaciated and no living space for lynx. This mountain range was likely recolonised from both opposite ends, and the now “homogenous” habitat complex is actually the suture of two isolated Late Pleistocene habitat patches, so called glacial refuges. In contrast, the Carpathians were a forest refuge during the last ice age (BURGA & PERRET 1998), and provided probably a better lynx habitat than the surrounding cold steppe plains. Parallel to the “natural” recolonisation, large scale human activities such as deforestation have had an impact on the distribution of large mammals in Europe for at least 5000 years. Human caused extinction or near-extinction, genetic bottlenecks and recolonisation – whether natural or artificial – have altered not only the distribution, but also the genetic set-up of what may have been the original arrangement of subspecies. As an example, HEMMER (1993) proposes that lynx recolonised Scandinavia in the Holocene from the south (Denmark) and from the north (Finland). The genetic pattern of the recent lynx populations (Fig. 2.6) does not support Hemmer’s hypothesis. This is however no proof that Hemmer was wrong; the reduction of the lynx area and the subsequent recovery (JONSSON 1983) may have camouflaged phylogenetic differences within Scandinavia.

[Image: EurasianLynxgenetics_zpsc087cbe4.jpg]

Considering all these aspects, we suggest to adopt the following subspecies of Lynx lynx in Europe for conservation purposes (Fig. 2.5): 1. Northern lynx (L. l. lynx), including the Fennoscandic, the Baltic and the Russian populations; 2. Carpathian lynx (L. l. carpathicus) in the Carpathian Mountains; and 3. Balkan lynx (L. l. martinoi), restricted to the south-western Balkan, mainly Albania and FYR Macedonia. Obviously, the extinct lynxes of the western Alps and the Pyrenees (referred to as L. l. spelaeus) were distinct. This form may have stretched from the Apennines (the place of origin) as far north-east as Scotland. HEMMER (2001) argued that the cave lynx was rather a species (L. spelaeus) than a subspecies, spreading from the Italian refuge after the last ice age and forming a distribution range between the Eurasian lynx (L. lynx) and the Iberian lynx (L. pardinus); but this hypothesis needs verification.
Lynx for the re-introductions in the Alps, the Vosges, the Dinaric, and the Bohemian-Bavarian Mountains were taken from the Carpathian population; other occurrences are of unknown origin or – as in the German Harz Mountains and the Kampinoski national park in Poland – a mixture of zoo animals of very diffuse origin (see chapter 2.3). From the preliminary genetic analysis (Fig. 2.6), the differentiation of the European lynx populations is obvious. As this differentiation is not only the result of human-made fragmentation of the area, but reflects the phylogenetic history and local adaptations, we recommend careful selection of animals or source populations for further re-introductions. Furthermore, crossbreeding of subspecies in European zoos should be avoided. Certain subspecies of lynx (e.g. the highly threatened Balkan lynx, L. l. martinoi, or the Caucasus lynx, L. l. dinniki) would be in need of a conservation-breeding programme. The present situation in European zoos, however, is marked by crossbreeding and inbreeding (chapter 2.3).

http://www.catsg.org/balkanlynx/02_status/2_3_taxonomy/Pdfs/von_Arx_et_al_2004_Phylogenetic_history_in_Eurasian_lynx_status_report.pdf
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#6
Lynx food habits revealed: birds in the summer and deer in the winter

News 9.3.2014 19:57 | updated 9.3.2014 19:57

Five years of radio collar monitoring of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) has provided much new information about the living patterns of Finland’s largest feline creatures, including data on what they eat. Surprisingly, their diet varies considerably according to the time of year.

[Image: EurasianLynx_zpsa70adbac.jpg]
The lynx population in Finland was around 2,000 individuals in 2008, but wildlife researchers agree that numbers have increased since then.

The radio tracking has provided researchers with extensive information on individual lynx territories and movements. New information on their dietary habits also is of benefit.

Lynx apparently hunt for different kinds of food in the summer and winter. During the cold months, they prefer to eat species of the deer family, but in the summer they eat less of these and turn to small predators and birds for nutrition, says lynx researcher Katja Holmala of the Research Institute of Game and Fisheries.

No differences were observed in the extent to which lynx move among human settlements in the winter and summer, however. More people report lynx tracks in the snow in the winter because they are easily visible, but facts show that the lynx is always on the move. “Summer through winter, it’s always the same,” says Holmala.

http://yle.fi/uutiset/lynx_food_habits_revealed_birds_in_the_summer_and_deer_in_the_winter/7127765 
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#7
Lynx take lunch breaks

Date: December 18, 2014
Source: Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
Summary:
Whether a lynx hunts by day or by night and how active it is overall depend primarily on the behavior of the wild cat's most important prey and its individual traits - lighting conditions, on the other hand, do not play a major role in its basic behavioral patterns. This is the key finding of a new study in which scientists fitted GPS collars and motion sensors on 38 free-ranging lynx.

[Image: 141218081006_1_540x360.jpg]
The scientists fitted GPS collars and motion sensors on 38 free-ranging lynx for the study.

An international research team recorded and analyzed the activity patterns of 38 wild cats over the course of months Whether a lynx hunts by day or by night and how active it is overall depend primarily on the behavior of the wild cat's most important prey and its individual traits -- lighting conditions, on the other hand, do not play a major role in its basic behavioral patterns. This is the key finding of a study published in the journal PLOS ONE by an international research team led by forest scientist Dr. Marco Heurich.
The scientists fitted GPS collars and motion sensors on 38 free-ranging lynx for the study. Since the study sites were located across a wide latitudinal range from Central Europe to northern Scandinavia, the length of days and nights varied greatly between them. The team recorded and analyzed the activity patterns of the wild cats on a total of more than 11,000 days. The results reveal that lynx in more southerly regions are most active at dawn and dusk and that they move more by night than by day. They take their longest break in the middle of the day, and this break is extended as daylight duration increases. However, the cats exhibit this basic behavioral pattern independently of lighting conditions: "Lynx keep to a 24-hour rhythm with an active and a resting phase even on the polar day and the polar night," reports Heurich.
What the study found to be more important for explaining the wild cats' activity patterns are their individual traits: Young lynx are more active than adult lynx, and male adults are more active than female adults. In addition, they move more in spring and summer than in fall and winter, and the farther north they live, the larger the territory they cover -- and this of course results in higher activity. Lynx adapt their hunting schedule to the behavior of their prey. In polar regions, the height of their activity at dusk is less pronounced. This corresponds to the behavioral pattern of reindeer, which exhibit a steady movement profile outside of their sleeping phases.. In Central Europe, by contrast, the team found a maximum amount of activity at dusk -- in lynx as well as in deer. "The findings of this study make an important contribution to our understanding of the habits of predatory animals in our landscape," says Heurich. "They also show that human activities in the areas included in the study do not have a general influence on the activity pattern of the animals."

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/12/141218081006.htm




Journal Reference:
Marco Heurich, Anton Hilger, Helmut Küchenhoff, Henrik Andrén, Luděk Bufka, Miha Krofel, Jenny Mattisson, John Odden, Jens Persson, Geir R. Rauset, Krzysztof Schmidt, John D. C. Linnell. Activity Patterns of Eurasian Lynx Are Modulated by Light Regime and Individual Traits over a Wide Latitudinal Range. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (12): e114143 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114143

Abstract
The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7′N in central Europe to 70°00′N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day–night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0114143
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#8
Oops! Cave Lion Mummy Is Probably an Ice Age Lynx

By Laura Geggel, Senior Writer | November 14, 2017 04:08pm ET

[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...ktMS5qcGc=]
The newfound mummy kitten lying on its back.
Credit: Courtesy of Anastasia Koryakina

A Russian man hunting for mammoth tusks in Eastern Siberia made an unexpected discovery in September: the incredibly furry, slightly squished mummy of a cat from the last ice age. Scientists are celebrating the rare discovery, but they're not certain on one major point — whether the mummy is a cave lion cub or a lynx kitten, paleontologists told Live Science.

If the kitten is a lynx, it would be only the second species of its kind from the last ice age to be uncovered in Beringia, a region encompassing parts of Russia, Alaska and Canada, said Olga Potapova, the collections curator and manager at the Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, South Dakota, who is helping with the logistics of studying the new specimen.

People have spent at least 300 years collecting and studying frozen bones and mummies in Eastern Siberia, and "that yielded just one fossil bone of this [lynx] species," Potapova told Live Science in an email. So, "the find of the complete mummy of this species would be very surprising and interesting," she said. 

Astonishing discovery

Boris Berezhnev discovered the ice age kitty by the Tirekhtykh River in Eastern Siberia's Yakutia, a region about the size of India that has a population about equal to that of Delaware. Upon finding the furry, frozen mummy, Berezhnev's colleague notified scientists at the Academy of Sciences of Yakutia, who went to see the mummy at the academy just a few days later.

The scientists have had precious little time to study the mummy: They still don't know how long ago it lived, whether it's male or female and — of course — whether it's a lion or a lynx, although new observations suggest it's the latter, Potapova said.

But it's a safe bet the mummy dates to the Pleistocene, an epoch lasting from about 2.6 million until about 11,700 years ago.

If the mummy is a cave lion, "we believe that this find dates to the Late Pleistocene, considering the fact that the cave lions went extinct together with the woolly mammoths," Albert Protopov, who is head of the Mammoth Fauna Studies Department at the academy and is studying the feline, told Live Science in an email, as translated by Potapova. 

Protopov had nothing but praise for the newfound mummy, which is in remarkable condition, he said.

"The mummy is 100 percent complete and the hair is perfectly preserved," Protopov said. "The hide of the new mummy is just beautiful — it has predominantly gray coloration flecked by black guard hairs [the longer hairs on an animal's pelt]. The hair on the head has many black spots."

[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...A2OTQwMzY=]
A closer view of the furry mummified kitten. Notice its whiskers are still intact.
Credit: Courtesy of Anastasia Koryakina

If it's a cave lion, the size suggests the little cub was probably between 1.5 months and 2 months old when it died, "probably due to collapse of the den," Protopov said, noting that "the mummy’s body is deformed, and its head is flattened" from being crushed over time.

The last known cave lion (Panthera spelaea) lived about 14,000 years ago in what is now Alaska, Potapova previously told Live Science. Genetic studies show that P. spelaea and the modern African lion (Panthera leo) are sister groups that diverged to become separate species about 1.9 million years ago. In turn, about 300,000 years ago, the cave lion gave rise to the American lion (Panthera artox), which lived only in North America and has since gone extinct, Potapova said.

Uyan and Dina

[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...A2OTQxMjQ=]
The mummy known as Uyan, who was discovered in the Siberian permafrost in 2015.
Credit: Olga Potapova

The mummy is the third ice age cat recently discovered in Yakutia. In 2015, two mummified cave lion cubs were found on the banks of the Uyandina River. Researchers named them Uyan and Dina, and speculated that the cubs were merely a week old when their den likely collapsed and killed them.

Like Uyan and Dina, the newfound cat was found in permafrost. When the dens of these young cats collapsed, "the instant burial secured preservation of the hides with hair," said Potapova, who studied the cave lion cubs with a team of researchers, including Protopov.

"The constant permafrost temperature and lack of oxygen prevented decay of the bodies for thousands of years," she added.

Both the modern African lion and the modern Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) make underground dens, where they nurse and raise their litters, Potapova said. "It is likely that in the Pleistocene, the dens were similarly important for the cave lions and the Eurasian lynx to protect their youngsters," she said.

That said, the clue that the newfound cat likely lived in a den doesn't help solve the mystery of its species. But Potapova said that the proportions of its body and color of its coat suggest that it might be a European lynx. If that's the case, the kitten was likely between 4 and 6 months old when it died, she said. 

The Eurasian lynx appeared relatively late in the Pleistocene record, about 130,000 to 120,000 year ago, Potapova said. The cat is an ambush predator that Potapova calls the "coyote of the forest." It somehow survived the end of the last ice age, when countless megafauna (animals weighing more than 100 lbs., or 45 kilograms) went extinct, including the mammoths, short-faced bears, saber-toothed cats and ground sloths.

[Image: aHR0cDovL3d3dy5saXZlc2NpZW5jZS5jb20vaW1h...A2OTQyMzk=]
An adult Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).
Credit: David Castor

Is cloning possible?

Despite other news reports, it would be extremely challenging to clone the newly discovered kitty.

"I believe that the preservation of the DNA exceeds the quality of the Uyan and Dina’s DNA, but I do not think the cloning is possible," Protopov said.

"The cloning technology here is useless because it requires a living cell or living soft tissues, which are far gone in mummies that are thousands of years old," Potapova added.

However, any genetic information researchers can find will be of use, especially if it's a lynx. Genetic data from the mummy would add to science's very limited knowledge on the genetic diversity of the Pleistocene lynx, "especially from this part of Siberia," where lynx no longer live, Potapova said. 

If the technology ever gets there, researchers could reintroduce this genetic diversity back into modern lynxes, Potapova said. But that likely won't happen anytime soon. "Our kids or grandkids would be likely able to watch," Potapova said.

https://www.livescience.com/60939-mummied-kitten-may-be-lynx-or-cave-lion.html 
[Image: wildcat10-CougarHuntingDeer.jpg]
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#9
Warsaw2014 Wrote:Cranial morphometry of the Eurasian lynx ( ranial morphometry of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx ynx lynx L.) from .) from
Croatia
https://www.google.pl/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiwroyP-6_YAhWoJZoKHRdUCAAQFggqMAA&url=https%3A%2F%2Fhrcak.srce.hr%2Ffile%2F88427&usg=AOvVaw05wRL-pETBCKtYnSFQyKJz
[Image: wildcat10-CougarHuntingDeer.jpg]
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#10
Here I leave the diet of the lynx in Nepal and Tibet.

Nepal (Dolpa district) : The frequency of occurrence analysis of these six Eurasian lynx scats revealed a dietary content of 56% woolly hare hair, 17.7% pika and rodent Alticola sp. (hair, bones, jaw, and claw), 9.7% Himalayan marmot hair, 7% vegetation, 3.3% debris, 3.3% domestic goat hair and 3% unidentifiable bone parts.

Tibet: In Tibet the prey consisted of 37% steppe hare, 16% steppe pika, 21% birds, 9% Tibetan antelope, 7% Tibetan gazelle, 4% blue sheep, and 3% Tibetan fox 
in 21 scats.
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#11
Battle of the big cats sees tiger hunt and devour a lynx

It’s a cat-eat-cat world. A tiger has been reported stalking, killing and feasting on a lynx in Russia’s far east – the first time a lethal encounter between the two animals has been documented.
In March 2014, Ivan Polkovnikov, a worker at Bastak Nature Reserve, spotted the lynx’s carcass surrounded by tiger tracks, imprinted in a thick layer of snow. Polkovnikov and his colleagues examined the lynx’s remains and retraced the tracks to piece together what happened.
Based on this the team have now published a description of how the deadly meeting of the carnivores unfolded.
An Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) first followed the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) stealthily, occasionally hiding behind a tree and a mound of snow. The tiger then sped up and bounded after the lynx, which tried to escape – in vain.
The two animals rolled together in the snow for about 4 metres, before the tiger killed the lynx. It then dragged the carcass uphill and sampled some meat from the right back hip of its victim.
But it only ate a small portion of the carcass (see picture), which means it probably didn’t target the lynx as a source of food, says Dale Miquelle of the Wildlife Conservation Society’s Russia programme, who co-authored a study on the attack.

[Image: lynx_photo-600x400.jpg]


Competing carnivore

Rather, the tiger would have killed the lynx to get rid of a competitor whose prey overlaps with its own. “They are basically programmed to kill other competitors,” says Miquelle. “We know that competing carnivores will do this kind of thing.”

John Goodrich at the big cat conservation organisation Panthera in New York agrees. “Carnivores will kill other carnivore species, and especially those that they compete with for food,” he says. Tigers have previously been reported to kill wolves.

Though the ranges of lynx and endangered tigers in Russia overlap, this is the first recorded case of predation between them, say the team.

Still, it doesn’t mean this is the only instance of this behaviour that has ever occurred. “I think this is happening more often than we think, but it is always difficult to confirm and document,” Miquelle says.

The new findings show us how wild animals really coexist, says Miquelle. “Things aren’t always peaceful and tranquil in the wild, and animals come into conflict and are battling over resources,” he says.
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#12
https://www.kora.ch/malme/05_library/5_1...ntains.pdf

Another study about the diet of eurasian lynx in dinaric mountains of croatia and slovenia. Besides above study (posted by felinepowah) which shows us the elements of the lynx diet in dinaric mountain as roe deer, red deer, dormouse, chamois, red fox, rodents and birds, this one comprises also another resarch done between 1983-1998 where the diet is composed of cervids (red and roe deer, chamois), dormouse, domestic animals, birds , small carnivores and wild boar.

Based on data from the scat and stomach samples, lynx killed ungulates more often in winter and spring, while the opposite is true for hunting dormice. Regarding wild boars, lynx is hunting them just in winter.

We know that breeding season of boars in europe starts in november and continues till february (in some exceptional cases april). They usually conceive in the winter months at the end of the year, followed by a gestation period of almost 4 months long.  This leads to Springtime births (march - may). Contrary to popular belief they are generaly breeding once in a year.

So based on the general rules about their breeding season, we can assume that boars hunted by eurasian lynx in winter should be at least 6 to 10 months old.

(https://academic.oup.com/jmammal/article...-1-251.pdf ) according to This study made in southern france shows the body mass of boars in different ages, give us 20-40 kg for a boar having of 200 - 300 days old. And boars in decidous forests (like those in in orthern dinars, (the region of our study) should be somehow similar to those in southern france. 

To conclude, this study and another one posted above by gato gardo give us an idea about the possible limits of the erurasian lynx’s predation on wild boar, 30+ kg ( even 40) which is quite impressive even for a big 30 kg tom
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#13
mother wolf flees den from male lynx

"One well traced and documented example was quite impressive, at least, for us. In Naliboki Forest in the late April of 2017 in wolf pack consisting of 3 pregnant females and 2 adult males (a case of multiple breeding in a wolf pack) there were born three litters. During two weeks all three litters were extirpated by one big male lynx. Applying camera traps, we documented the appearance of the male lynx at the wolf burrows with pups. In one case there was the mother wolf at the den, but, when it detected the lynx, it escaped, permitting for the lynx to kill the pups."

From Cat

Rare video: a male lynx has a scrap with a wolverine in Nordland!

https://m.youtube.com/watch?time_continu...rTP4OHtnsQ

From K9boy

“Reisarypas Marco has been attacked by lynx during hunting. We cross our fingers and hope everything goes well and that Marco is not clouded by the incident.
Owner saw the attack and got yelled out, and then the lynx disappeared.”

The dog is an adult gordon setter. The incident took place in december 2015.


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#14
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Quote:Eurasian lynx hunting a dog (laika dog breed). Dog owner saw a lynx and her dead dog without head.

https://rep.ru/daily/2011/02/23/16997/
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