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Tiger - Panthera tigris
Tigers killing huge wild water buffaloes:

Account of a male tiger that called-out a huge wild monster-bull buffalo, and destroyed the massive bull in an instant.

From the book:

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"They saw and heard nothing. Relieved, they poured themselves a fresh beer and talk about the relation between poor people and superstition. Then they suddenly hear a thunderous bellow. Not more than 50 or 60 yards from their cars, they see the grass violently shaken and dust coming up. But no matter how hard they look, there is no bull!"....

"Totally flabberghasted, the incident they just saw with their own eyes is discussed. But they were not the only ones who heard him. Suddenly, from the opposite direction, a monster bull comes out of the jungle:

...On comes the brute shaking his enormous curved horns, and stopping every ten paces to lower his great head and bellow! At each such demonstration, a cloud of dust rises up to screen him for a few seconds. We bend low under the cover of some bushes and curving grass in the front of the cars, utterly bewildered, and watch the huge bull walk right up to the spot from which the original challenge first came thundering out. But there is no fierce opponent to meet him! A dead silence prevails, and the huge bull stands with his head erect and nostrils expanded, apparently as much surprised and puzzled as we are..." (pp. 318-319).

"Just when the Opium Officer understood the situation and informed the others to be ready to shoot, they saw..."

" enormous elongated form...emerge from the low grass and two mighty paws...hugging the thick-set neck of the monster bull, whose great horned head is suddenly thrown up, and he falls forward with a deep groan. The next instant, a great striped animal with a gigantic cat's head gives a clear view of formidable bulging shoulders, and a volley rushes out immediately..." (pp. 319).

Not only did this tiger easily destroy and break the neck of a giant wild bull buffalo, that was challenging for a fight...but the shikarries that actually witnessed the event with their own eyes, didn't seem surprised at the outcome!...

"The shikarries expressed little surprise at the turn of events; all Goman sing said was, that the tiger had come to witness the bull fight and had killed the bull.."

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That annihilation was witnessed by several people in broad-daylight.

Bengt Berg also documented and reported an account of a male tiger called "The Killer of Men"...that only hunted and killed the largest wild bull buffaloes, by breaking their necks with ease:

From the book:

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Quote from Berg's book:

1 - While searching for "the Killer of Men", Berg found a dead male buffalo near the Bhutan border:

"....It was a very large wild male buffalo, and he was lying on his side, the head underneath his body and the horns sticking in the ground (...) It looked like the tiger had broken his neck with a single grip. The grip was such, that the heavy body also was thrown over. A tiger able to kill a buffalo of about a thousand kg ( 2200 lbs ) in such an easy way, had to have unimaginable power..." (pp. 169).

Here's the tiger (The Killer of Men)...that was responsible for killing and breaking the necks of only the largest wild Bull buffaloes:

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So as we can clearly see...large male tigers are easily capable of breaking the necks of the largest wild bull buffaloes out there, with no problems!

Tiger eating his wild bull buffalo kill:

Tiger attacks a herd of six wild water buffaloes and kills a huge, nearly one tonne adult buffalo and drags its carcass for a distance of 200 meters, showing monstrous strength:

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Bengal tigers have been observed breaking the necks and skulls of Buffalo with paw strikes. Tiger clubbed a beater so hard, that its claws penetrated the heavy brass: ( John Vaillant )

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Tiger with its wild bull buffalo kill in the North:

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Here's Colonel Kesri Singh's account from his book: "The Tiger of Rajasthan"...of a tiger that took up the challenge of a big wild bull buffalo, and destroyed the bull by breaking its legs:


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"A tiger at the apex of his powers is master of the jungle, his jungle, and all the other inhabitants of his hunting grounds must recognize it. If they challenge him he will fight even the most powerful." (Page 132)...

"In the night a tigress appeared and started to kill the calf. But the poor beasts expiring chokings were heard and the shikaries, who were watching, saw a great bull buffalo come trotting up in the moonlight. He chased the tigress, who could not face the sweep of his immense horns, away, and then mounted guard over the corpse until he was driven off by the men in the morning"...

"The next night another victim was put out, since it seemed unlikely that the tigress would return for a kill she had been driven from the previous night, and it was hoped to attract the male tiger. On this occasion the calf gave a distress call before the tigress actually appeared and the bull came up in time to save it. The shikaries did not see the tigress, but her pug-marks were found all around where the bull had stood by the unharmed calf."....

"On the third night the drama was repeated, but on the fourth the tigress's mate appeared on the scene. He at once took up the challenge and began attacking the bull now from one angle, now from another. Finally he managed to hamstring him and then break his hind-legs, after which the heroic brute was at his mercy. The tiger was no doubt very much exhausted by the battle, and he may have been injured, but it is worth remarking that he did not, in fact, attempt to kill and eat the calf. Certainly he could have found far easier feeding without challenging a big herd bull ready and spoiling for a fight. It was simply, I believe, that he was not going to give in and retire before any threat that stood between him and any prey he chose."...( Page 133 - 134 )

Thats a tiger that immediately took up the challenge of a big angry bull buffalo, with immense horns, and killed it in a straight up fight.
Remains of a wild water buffalo and a Gaur killed by a tiger:

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(08-31-2018, 01:07 AM)Mountain Lord Wrote: Remains of a wild water buffalo and a Gaur killed by a tiger:

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Bubalus Bubalis is the domestic buffalo.
Genome-wide study confirms six tiger subspecies

Date:  October 25, 2018
Source:  Cell Press

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This map shows postulated dispersal routes and range expansions of modern tigers.
Credit: Liu et al. / Current Biology

Fewer than 4,000 free-ranging tigers remain in the wild. Efforts to protect these remaining tigers have also been stymied by uncertainty about whether they represent six, five or only two subspecies. Now, researchers who've analyzed the complete genomes of 32 representative tiger specimens confirm that tigers indeed fall into six genetically distinct groups. The findings are reported in Current Biology on October 25.
These six subspecies include the Bengal tiger, Amur tiger, South China tiger, Sumatran tiger, Indochinese tiger, and Malayan tiger, first proposed in 2004. Three other tiger subspecies have already been lost to extinction.

"The lack of consensus over the number of tiger subspecies has partially hindered the global effort to recover the species from the brink of extinction, as both captive breeding and landscape intervention of wild populations increasingly requires an explicit delineation of the conservation management units," says Shu-Jin Luo of Peking University in Beijing. "This study is the first to reveal the tiger's natural history from a whole-genomic perspective. It provides robust, genome-wide evidence for the origin and evolution of this charismatic megafauna species."

Luo and colleagues, including first author Yue-Chen Liu, set out to expand their earlier genetic evidence on tiger's evolutionary history and population structure using a whole-genome approach. They realized that genome-wide screening was also the only way to look for signals that distinct groups of tigers have undergone natural selection to adapt to the environments found in the distinct geographic regions they inhabit.
Fossil evidence shows that tigers go back two to three million years. But, the genomic evidence shows that all living tigers only trace back to a time about 110,000 years ago, when tigers suffered a historic population bottleneck.

The genomic evidence shows that there is very little gene flow among tiger populations. Despite the tiger's low genetic diversity, the pattern across groups is highly structured, offering evidence that these subspecies each have a unique evolutionary history. That's quite unique among the big cats, the researchers say, noting that several other species, such as the jaguar, have shown much more evidence of intermixing across whole continents.

Tiger subspecies have distinct features. For example, Amur tigers are large with pale orange fur, while Sumatran tigers in the Sunda Islands tend to be smaller with darker, thickly striped fur. In fact, despite the very recent common ancestor of all living tigers, the researchers were able to detect evidence of natural selection.

"In the end, we were quite amazed that, by performing a stepwise genome-wide scan, seven regions including 14 genes stood out as the potential regions subject for selection," Luo says.

The strongest signal of selection they found was in the Sumatran tiger, across a genomic region that contains the body-size-related ADH7 gene. The researchers suggest that the Sumatran tiger might have been selected for smaller size to reduce its energy demands, allowing it to survive on the island's smaller prey animals, such as wild pigs and muntjac, a small deer.

The new findings provide the strongest genetic evidence yet for subspecies delineation in tigers. "Tigers are not all alike," Luo says. "Tigers from Russia are evolutionarily distinct from those from India. Even tigers from Malaysia and Indonesia are different."

The origin of the South China tiger remains unresolved since only one specimen from captivity was used in this study, the researchers note. Unfortunately, this subspecies has gone extinct in the wild. The researchers plan to study old specimens with known origin from all over China to fill in the missing pieces of living tigers' evolutionary history. They're also retrieving genomic information from historical specimens, including those representing the extinct Caspian, Javan, and Bali tigers.

This research was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, a Russian Science Foundation grant, and by St. Petersburg State University.

Story Source: Cell Press. "Genome-wide study confirms six tiger subspecies." ScienceDaily. (accessed October 25, 2018).

Journal Reference:
  1. Yue-Chen Liu, Xin Sun, Carlos Driscoll, Dale G. Miquelle, Xiao Xu, Paolo Martelli, Olga Uphyrkina, James L.D. Smith, Stephen J. O'Brien, Shu-Jin Luo. Genome-Wide Evolutionary Analysis of Natural History and Adaptation in the World's Tigers. Current Biology, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.09.019
No other species attracts more international resources, public attention, and protracted controversies over its intraspecific taxonomy than the tiger (Panthera tigris). Today, fewer than 4,000 free-ranging tigers survive, covering only 7% of their historical range, and debates persist over whether they comprise six, five, or two subspecies. The lack of consensus over the number of tiger subspecies has partially hindered the global effort to recover the species from the brink of extinction, as both captive breeding and landscape intervention of wild populations increasingly require an explicit delineation of the conservation management units. The recent coalescence to a late Pleistocene bottleneck (circa 110 kya) poses challenges for detecting tiger subspecific morphological traits, suggesting that elucidating intraspecific evolution in the tiger requires analyses at the genomic scale. Here, we present whole-genome sequencing analyses from 32 voucher specimens that resolve six statistically robust monophyletic clades corresponding to extant subspecies, including the recently recognized Malayan tiger (P. tigris jacksoni). The intersubspecies gene flow is very low, corroborating the recognized phylogeographic units. We identified multiple genomic regions that are candidates for identifying the adaptive divergence of subspecies. The body-size-related gene ADH7 appears to have been strongly selected in the Sumatran tiger, perhaps in association with adaptation to the tropical Sunda Islands. The identified genomic signatures provide a solid basis for recognizing appropriate conservation management units in the tiger and can benefit global conservation strategic planning for this charismatic megafauna icon.
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Crouching tigers, hidden cameras: Nepal counts its big cats
October 30, 2018 by Paavan Mathema

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Nepal's southern lowlands, home to five national parks, were mapped into grids, each fitted with a pair of camera traps to record the tigers

Chayan Kumar Chaudhary flicked through photographs captured on a hidden camera in the jungle, hoping his favourite big cat—dubbed "selfie tiger" for its love of the limelight—had made another appearance.

Thousands of camera traps have helped conservationists track Nepal's wild tiger population, which has nearly doubled in recent years as the big cats claw their way back from the verge of extinction.

After a nine-year push to protect tigers, an exhaustive census across 2,700 kilometres (1,700 miles) of Nepal's lowlands completed earlier this year revealed the population has grown from 121 in 2009 to an estimated 235 adult cats today.

On the frontline of the painstaking survey were trained locals like Chaudhary in western Nepal's Bardia National Park where tiger numbers have grown nearly fivefold.

The 25-year-old helped track and record wild tiger movements through the park by scanning images taken by cameras hidden in the jungle's undergrowth.

"It was very exciting when we checked the (memory) cards and found photos of tigers," Chaudhary told AFP.

"It felt like we are part of something big."

Nepal's southern lowlands, home to five national parks, were mapped into grids, each fitted with a pair of camera traps to record any tiger activity.

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A Bengal tiger in Nepal's Bardia National Park is captured in a camera trap

More than 3,200 of these special camera traps were installed, some by field workers on elephants to navigate the dense jungle.

"It was not an easy process and risky as well," said Man Bahadur Khadka, head of Nepal's department of wildlife and national parks.

These cameras were equipped with sensors that triggered a click whenever any movement or a change in temperature was detected.

Soon the photos started to trickle in: lone tigers walking past, mothers with their playful cubs and the occasional tiger feasting on a fresh kill. And Chaudhary's favourite: a big cat that seemed to enjoy preening in front of the lens.

The census began in November 2017 and by the following March, more than 4,000 images of tigers had been collected.

"We then began analysing the photos," Khadka said. "Just like our fingerprints, tigers have unique stripes. No two tigers are alike."

'Our wealth'

Conservationists say that behind Nepal's success was a strategy to turn tiger-fearing villagers—who could earn thousands of dollars for poaching a big cat—into the animal's protectors.

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Nepal's tiger numbers hit rock bottom following a decade-long civil war, which ended in 2006, when poachers ran amok across the southern plains

A century ago, Nepal's lush jungles were a playground for the country's rulers and visiting British dignitaries who came to hunt the Royal Bengal tiger.

In 1900, more than 100,000 tigers were estimated to roam the planet. But that fell to a record low of 3,200 globally in 2010.

Nepal's tiger numbers hit rock bottom following the decade-long civil war, which ended in 2006, when poachers ran amok across the southern plains.

In 2009, the government changed tack, enlisting community groups to protect the animals. Hundreds of young volunteers were recruited to guard Nepal's national parks, patrolling against poachers, raising awareness and protecting the natural habitat.

"Tigers are our wealth, we have to protect them," said Sanju Pariyar, 22, who was just a teen when she joined an anti-poaching group.

"People understand that if our tiger and rhino numbers grow, tourists will come and bring opportunities. It is good for us."

Armed with a stick, Pariyar regularly goes out on patrol to search for traps laid by poachers.

The locals have also become informants, alerting park officials if they see anything, or anyone, suspicious.

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In 2010, Nepal and 12 other countries with tiger populations signed an agreement to double their big cat numbers by 2022 and the Himalayan nation is set to be the first to achieve the target

Nepal has tough punishments for poachers—up to 15 years in jail and a heavy fine—and it has recently started a genetic database of its tigers to aid investigations.

In March, police arrested a poacher who had been on the run for five years after being caught with five tiger pelts and 114 kilos (251 pounds) of bones.

The contraband was believed to have been destined for China, a top market for wildlife smugglers, where rare animal parts are used in traditional medicine.

In 2010, Nepal and 12 other countries with tiger populations signed an agreement to double their big cat numbers by 2022. The Himalayan nation is set to be the first to achieve this target.

"If a country like Nepal—small, least developed, with lots of challenges—can do it, the others can do it," said Nepal's WWF representative, Ghana Gurung.

But conservationists are aware that rising tiger numbers are also good news for poachers and the lucrative black market they supply with endangered animal parts.

Tiger poaching is difficult to track because unlike with rhinos, nothing of the cat is left behind after it is killed.

"It is now more important than ever to stay vigilant," said national park warden Ashok Bhandari.
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Another Case of Cannibalism Reported in Madhya Pradesh as A Tiger was Reported Half Eaten in Pench National Park

Cases of cannibalism amongst tigers in Madhya Pradesh has witnessed another chapter as it was reported on March 1st 2019 that another carcass of an adult tiger was found in Pench National Park & Tiger Reserve. This news comes just a day after it was reported that a cannibal tiger killed and fed on two sub-adult tigers in Kanha National Park. Even that wasn’t the first case of cannibalism amongst the tigers.

Tiger killed by a tiger (near is adult wild boar carcass)

I found this on a page. Russian
The remains of a young tiger killed and eaten by a brown crank bear. 1956 Stone key, Shuhi-Pokto ridge, Khabarovsk territory. Photo by N. Krivopusk.

The rival of the tiger is the wolf everywhere. In Primorye, the hunters believe that where there is a tiger, there are no wolves or they are very few, since they are sure that this great predator destroys the wolves. Zoologists who studied the tiger in the Far East share the same opinion (Kaplanov, 1948; G.F. Bromley, oral communication). Knowing how the tiger chases dogs, it can be assumed that he hunts wolves with the same intensity. The rival of this predator can be a leopard; As a general rule, these cats do not live close to each other. Sometimes, in the footsteps of a tiger, there is a big bear and a marten, and in Central Asia: a jackal and a hyena in the hope of obtaining benefits from the remains of their food. For example, in the Far East, in the valley of the Armu River, a red deer was found, bitten by a tiger and then buried by a brown bear in the snow (K. G. Abramov, oral communication). In the territory of Khabarovsk, In the years of poor feeding for the bear (pine nuts and acorns), get fat a little, do not go to the den for a long time and start attacking wild boars and elk more frequently than usual, competing like that with the tiger. In such cases, the bear sometimes drives young tigers away from their prey (V.P. Sysoev, oral communication)
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  • Claudiu Constantin Nicolaescu
Tiger kills and eats wolf

Specialists continue to monitor Tiger Saikhan and Tigress Lazovka, who, after a rehabilitation course, were released in the middle course of the Bijan River in the Jewish Autonomous Region on May 19. The observation is carried out using collars with a GPS module, which the tigers were equipped when they were released in the wild, reports the Amur Tiger Center.

The other day, a special group of employees of the Amur Tiger Center and the Directorate of Protection of Wildlife Objects and Specially Protected Natural Areas of the Jewish Autonomous Region reviewed the groups of predators. It turned out that the wolf became Saikhan's first prey

The wolf is a difficult object to hunt, therefore, since Saikhan got the wolf, then he will surely take care of the ungulates. The data obtained by us are quite interesting. In this sense, although we are more afraid of Saikhan, since in childhood he was seriously injured, and in fact, by his nature, he is more shy, or rather, aggressive. Now the main thing is that the team does not disappoint us and allows us to continue observing.
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  • Claudiu Constantin Nicolaescu
^I found this (impressive tigress "Misha" was known as bear's hunter),over 80% of "misha's" kill found by 'project biologist', have been "bears"!

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  • Claudiu Constantin Nicolaescu

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