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Side-striped Jackal - Canis adustus
#1
Side-striped Jackal - Canis adustus

[Image: Side-striped-jackal.jpg]

Jackals will often follow lions and other big cats to scavenge their kills.

Life span
Side-striped jackals live for 12-14 years in captivity.


Statistics

Body length: 65-106cm, 
Tail length: 30-35cm, 
Standing height: 45-50cm, 
Weight: 8-15kg.

Physical description
Side-striped jackals are grey with dark stripes on the flanks and a white tip on the tail.

Distribution
They range from Senegal to Somalia, and south to northern Namibia and eastern South Africa.

Habitat
Side-striped jackals inhabit open country.

Diet
They feed on small mammals, insects and fruit.

Behaviour
Side-striped jackals live together in pairs, but often hunt in family troops. They are nocturnal.

Reproduction
Females have a gestation period of nine weeks, after which they give birth to 3-6 pups. They weigh 200-250g at birth.

Conservation status

Side-striped jackals are not listed by the IUCN Red List. 

They are considered a serious predator of sheep and are therefore intensively hunted and poisoned.
[Image: wildcat10-CougarHuntingDeer.jpg]
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#2
Red Dog Wrote:Below is a study of Black-Backed Jackal interactions with Side-Striped Jackals. Basically, Black-Backed Jackals dominate the approximately 33% larger Side-Striped Jackal.


Source: Journal of Mammalogy, 83(2):599–607, 2002
HABITAT ECOLOGY OF TWO SYMPATRIC SPECIES OF JACKALS
IN ZIMBABWE
A. J. LOVERIDGE AND D. W. MACDONALD*


We radiotracked 22 jackals, 11 Canis mesomelas and 11 Canis adustus, in Hwange, Zimbabwe, to test the hypotheses that habitat use would differ and that the larger C. adustus
would displace the smaller C. mesomelas. C. mesomelas preferentially used grassland. C. adustus used woodland and scrub. Habitat use by C. adustus differed from allopatric populations in which this species uses grassland, the likely favored habitat for jackals. C.mesomelas was shown to aggressively displace C. adustus from grassland. Aggressive
displacement of a larger species by a smaller species is an unusual and probably uniquebehavior in carnivores.

In 21 of all 23 observed interspecific interactions,
either C. mesomelas chased C.
adustus from the vicinity (14 occasions) or
C. adustus retreated or avoided the presence
of C. mesomelas with no chasing (7 occasions).
In 8 of these cases a food resource
or potential food resource (i.e., recorded
sound) was available. On only 2 occasions
were both species present with no interaction.
In 1 of these cases the 2 groups of
animals were separated by 50 m. On 10 occasions
C. mesomelas chased C. adustus
when no food resource was available to defend.
In these cases, pursuits of between 15
and 50 m occurred, and all followed a similar
pattern. In 3 of the 22 interactions, C.
adustus retreated from C. mesomelas, without
being chased, C. mesomelas showing no
signs of having noticed the other animals.
In other cases (n = 8), a food resource or
potential food resource (recording of prey
distress calls) was involved in the interaction.
On 4 occasions, C. adustus did not
attempt to approach in the presence of C.
mesomelas but instead stayed in the vicinity,
using Terminalia scrub as cover. On 2
of these occasions, C. adustus fed later, and
on the other 2 occasions they never gained
access to the food resource, possibly because
C. mesomelas remained in the area or
because the resource was consumed by other
scavengers. Both species responded to
sound recordings on 2 occasions. In both
cases, C. mesomelas aggressively displaced
C. adustus.

It is clear that in the absence
of competitors C. adustus and C. mesomelas
both choose to use grassland and open
woodland over other habitats.

In the case of the 2 southern African species
of jackals, it is clear that in the absence of
C. mesomelas (e.g., northern Zimbabwe—
Atkinson 1997), C. adustus will use a range
of habitats and preferentially use grassland,
the most favorable habitat. However, when
the 2 southern African species are sympatric,
the range of habitats used by C. adustus
is narrowed, in response to the presence of
the smaller but more aggressive species.
The habitat partitioning observed in this
study appears to be mediated by aggressive
exclusion of C. adustus from grassland by
C. mesomelas. Because jackals are coursing
predators adapted to open terrain (Ewer
1973, Johnson et al. 1996), grassland appears
to be a favorable habitat with access
to more resources and resting places. Open
grassland allows easy movement, and open
resting sites may facilitate vigilance for potential
predators (e.g., leopard, Panthera
pardus—Turnbull-Kemp 1967). In addition,
Atkinson (1997) found that guinea savannah
grassland in central Zimbabwe (cf.
Coe and Skinner 1993) is richer in food resources,
such as small mammals and fruit,
than is woodland and therefore tends to be
frequented more often than expected by C.
adustus. In this study, grassland also provided
habitat suitable for springhares (Pedetes
capensis), a prey item favored by jackals
(Ferguson 1980; Loveridge 1999; Nel
1984).
Relationships between sympatric species
of canids are often hostile, and in general
larger species dominate (Carbyn 1982; Major
and Sherburne 1987; Rudzinski et al.
1982). However, despite their smaller size
and contrary to expectation, C. mesomelas
appeared to be dominant to C. adustus. In
interspecific encounters C. mesomelas almost
always aggressively displaced C.
adustus, with C. adustus avoiding direct
confrontation with C. mesomelas. Kingdon
(1997) suggests that C. mesomelas are
‘‘generally more aggressive than other jackal
species.’’ There is evidence that they may
also displace C. aureus (Kingdon 1977). C.
mesomelas is also more likely to risk feeding
among lions (Panthera leo) and spotted
hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) at carcasses than
are other species of jackals (Estes 1967,
1991; Kingdon 1977; Mills 1990; Wyman
1967).

Sicilianu Wrote:Smokey grey side-striped jackal
[Image: gray-side-striped-jackal.jpg]
[Image: wildcat10-CougarHuntingDeer.jpg]
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