Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
Broad-snout Casque-headed Tree Frog - Aparasphenodon arapapa
#1
Broad-snout Casque-headed Tree Frog - Aparasphenodon arapapa

[Image: medium.JPG]

Scientific classification
Kingdom:  Animalia
Phylum:  Chordata
Class:  Amphibia
Order:  Anura
Family:  Hylidae
Genus:  Aparasphenodon
Species:  Aparasphenodon arapapa Pimenta, Napoli, and Haddad, 2009

[Image: 220px-Bahia_MesoMicroMunicip.svg.png]

The broad-snout casque-headed tree frog (Asparasphenodon arapapa) is a species of frog endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest of Southern Bahia, Brazil. The frogs of the genus Asparasphenodon are distinguished by a bony plate on top of their heads, referred to as "casqueheaded". Casqueheaded frogs are characterized by their phragmotic behavior. Arapapa is further characterized by the long bill-shaped "snout" they possess, similar to that of Triprion petasatus, a head longer than it is wide, and their small size (male snout-vent length 57.4–58.1 mm). This species, and all species of Asparasphenodon, use their unique head shape to seal off the leaves of bromeliads, the plant they inhabit solely. This has two known purposes: warding off predators from the frog as well as their young (the male performs this action), and trapping moisture.




Not too big, not too small—tree frogs choose pools that are just right

December 5, 2018, Public Library of Science

[Image: nottoobignot.jpg]
Frogs that raise their young in tiny pools of water that collect on plant leaves must make a delicate trade-off between the risk of drying out and the risk of being eaten, according to a study publishing December 5 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Mirco Solé from the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz in Bahia, Brazil and colleagues. Credit: Mirco Solé, 2018

Frogs that raise their young in tiny pools of water that collect on plant leaves must make a delicate trade-off between the risk of drying out and the risk of being eaten, according to a study publishing December 5 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Mirco Solé from the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz in Bahia, Brazil and colleagues.

The temporary pools of water trapped by the leaf rosette of some plants in the Bromeliaceae family are used by a variety of creatures as a source of prey, water and shelter—one example is the Broad-snout casque-headed Tree Frog (Aparasphenodon arapapa) which uses the water 'tanks' of bromeliad plants as a place to mate and rear its tadpoles. To understand how the frogs choose the right spot, the researchers measured the characteristics, including size, water level, and leaf debris, of the central tanks of 239 bromeliads in Reserve Boa União in Bahia, Brazil.

They compared bromeliads that were occupied by a tree frog with those that were empty and found that male frogs generally prefer bromeliads with larger tanks, a higher volume of water, and less leaf litter—qualities which make the tanks less likely to dry up and easier to access. However, the very largest and fullest bromeliad tanks were frog-less, suggesting that a trade-off exists when choosing the best place to breed. Males have a specially shaped bony head that they use to form a tight seal with the opening of the bromeliad tank, which is thought to protect them from predators. Forming a tight seal may be tricky in very large bromeliads, making them a poor choice as a shelter.

The authors conclude that the trade-offs animals face when selecting a site to breed should be taken into consideration in conservation strategies.

Solé adds: "Aparasphenodon arapapa, a tropical frog from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest places its eggs into bromeliads, but instead of simply choosing the largest bromeliad tank with the most water, complex trade-offs between selection pressures and balancing water requirements are involved in the bromeliad choice."

https://phys.org/news/2018-12-big-smallt...pools.html


Journal Reference:
Lantyer-Silva ASF, Waldron A, Zina J, Solé M (2018) Reproductive site selection in a bromeliad breeding treefrog suggests complex evolutionary trade-offs. PLoS ONE 13(12): e0207131. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207131

Abstract
Reproductive site selection is a key determinant of fitness in many taxa. However, if the site characteristics that enhance offspring survival are detrimental to the parent’s survival or mating success, then complex evolutionary trade-offs occur. In the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, males of the treefrog species Aparasphenodon arapapa use the temporary water bodies in forest-floor bromeliads to court and mate. Males fit tightly into the plant with the head blocking the access and after mating, stay in the bromeliad with the offspring. Since evaporation of the temporary water body inside the bromeliad results in reproductive failure, we expected that males would simply choose the largest bromeliad tanks with the most water. We found that although this was generally true, males seemed to avoid both very large bromeliads and very high water volumes. Field observations suggested a trade-off mechanism for this pattern, whereby very large and water-filled tanks would reduce the male’s ability to effectively seal the tank entrance, avoid predation, or call to mating females. Males also avoided bromeliads with leaf litter and preferred slightly inclined plants. Our results indicate that during reproductive site selection, this bromeliad-breeder needs to engage in complex trade-offs between selection pressures, balancing water requirements against the need for defense and potentially, the ability to attract a mate.

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/articl...ne.0207131
[Image: wildcat10-CougarHuntingDeer.jpg]
[-] The following 1 user Likes Taipan's post:
  • Claudiu Constantin Nicolaescu
Reply


Forum Jump:


Users browsing this thread: 1 Guest(s)