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Visual Comparisons
#1
Photo 
Wolf Wrote:[Image: Killer%20Whale%20Poster%20-%20final.jpg?n=1491]

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"Size comparison with a 6 5/8 inch Megalodon tooth, a 3 1/8 inch fossil of a Miocene Great White, and a 1 1/2 inch modern day Great White. Image credit by @Brandon Zulli."
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#2
This guys great! : Serchio25

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achairodus giganteus & Domestic Cat

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Ursid Penis Bones

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This diagram compares the size the shape of the penis bones of the following bear species: A) sun bear, B) Asian black bear, C) Andean bear, D) American black bear, E) sloth bear, F) brown bear, G) polar bear and H) the extinct Indarctos arctoides.

[Image: bearweightsjournalpone0073711t001_zps619820a0.png]
Measurements of the baculum length (in mm) and aproximate worldwide average male body size (in Kg) for the eight extant species of Ursidae and the estimated average size calculated for the males of Indarctos arctoides from Batallone-3.

Source 




Dental lessons from past to present: ultrastructure and composition of teeth from plesiosaurs, dinosaurs, extinct and recent sharks



A. Lübke, J. Enax, K. Loza, O. Prymak, P. Gaengler, H.-O. Fabritius, D. Raabec and M. Epple 

RSC Adv., 2015,5, 61612-61622



Abstract

Teeth represent the hardest tissue in vertebrates and appear very early in their evolution as an ancestral character of the Eugnathostomata (true jawed vertebrates). In recent vertebrates, two strategies to form and mineralize the outermost functional layer have persisted. In cartilaginous fish, the enameloid is of ectomesenchymal origin with fluoroapatite as the mineral phase. All other groups form enamel of ectodermal origin using hydroxyapatite as the mineral phase. The high abundance of teeth in the fossil record is ideal to compare structure and composition of teeth from extinct groups with those of their recent successors to elucidate possible evolutionary changes. Here, we studied the chemical composition and the microstructure of the teeth of six extinct shark species, two species of extinct marine reptiles and two dinosaur species using high-resolution chemical and microscopic methods. Although many of the ultrastructural features of fossilized teeth are similar to recent ones (especially for sharks where the ultrastructure basically did not change over millions of years), we found surprising differences in chemical composition. The tooth mineral of all extinct sharks was fluoroapatite in both dentin and enameloid, in sharp contrast to recent sharks where fluoroapatite is only found in enameloid. Unlike extinct sharks, recent sharks use hydroxyapatite as mineral in dentin. Most notably and hitherto unknown, all dinosaur and extinct marine reptile teeth contained fluoroapatite as mineral in dentin and enamel. Our results indicate a drastic change in the tooth mineralization strategy especially for terrestrial vertebrates that must have set in after the cretaceous period. Possibly, this is related to hitherto unconsidered environmental changes that caused unfavourable conditions for the use of fluoroapatite as tooth mineral.



[Image: Extinct_Tooth_Comparison_zps9szjpi0n.jpg]


http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2015/RA/C5RA11560D#!divAbstract 



Check out the size of a Leopard Seals Head compared to a Human


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Hard to read the species, but its clear the Emperor is significantly the larger! 



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Fig 1. Photographs of a (a) plains, (b) mountain, and © Grevy’s zebra, and (d) African wild ass in the Tierpark Zoo, Berlin.

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0145679 




Adult Female Cougar v Cougar Cub



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Male v Female Leopard



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Cheetah v Leopard



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Canadian Lynx v Bobcat


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#3
Giraffe Warthog Size Comparison

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Humpback (adult & calf) compared to Humans

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Animals from the Order Carnovira????

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Some angry Carnorivans:

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Ungulates too!

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Brown Bear / Sperm Whale

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A brown bear explores a sizable meal — a sperm whale carcass that washed up in southeastern Alaska.
Credit: Karyn Traphagen

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A meal this rich needs to be appreciated from every angle.
Credit: Karyn Traphagen

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A brown bear atop the decaying sperm whale.
Credit: Karyn Traphagen

http://www.livescience.com/55043-bear-eats-whale.html



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An illustration showing the size comparison of Australian marsupials, including a newly described extinct species of carnivorous marsupial, Whollydooleya tomnpatrichorum.
Credit: Karen Black/UNSW

http://www.livescience.com/55576-extinct-australian-hypercarnivore-unearthed.html 




Comparison of Gestation Periods and Birth Weight to Adult Weight Ratio of various Mammals.


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Tremarctine titans



We're talking about a corner of the ursine family tree called Tremarctinae: the "running bears" or "short-faced bears". Neither of those descriptors is altogether accurate, based as they are on what may be a shaky understanding of perhaps the best-known of the extinct tremarctine species: the giant short-faced bear, Arctodus simus, which thumped around North America from about 1.8 million years ago to 11,000 years ago.



“The spectacled bear is the sole remaining representative of a family that once encompassed some of the all-out most formidable mammals ever to exist.”



A. simus without question ranks as one of the biggest terrestrial carnivores of all time, alongside its tremarctine relatives: the South American giant short-faced bear (Arctotherium angustidens) and the huge African short-faced bear (Agriotherium africanum).



A male North American giant may have tipped the scales at well more than a ton, towering 5.5 feet or more at the shoulder, and rearing imposingly on its hind legs to nearly ten feet tall. 



Arctotherium angustidens, the biggest of five Arctotherium species known from Pleistocene South America, may have been even larger: as much as 3,500 pounds!



The heft of these vanished relatives makes the spectacled bear look like a pipsqueak, although of course a 400-pound animal – the size of an especially large male Andean bear – is plenty big by modern standards.


https://www.earthtouchnews.com/natural-world/evolution/the-spectacled-bear-and-its-spectacular-forebears/

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#4
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The humerus (leg) bones (from left to right) of a cougar, tiger, saber-toothed cat (Smilodon fatalis), lion and American cave lion.
Credit: Donald Prothero

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0183175 




Predator to Prey Size ratios (Snow Leopard, Leopard, Jaguar & Tiger)

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Plot of the predator to prey body mass ratio of solitary members of the genus Panthera and how this relates to the body mass of each species (Hayward et al., 2006a, 2012; Lyngdoh et al., 2014).

Source: Prey Preferences of the Jaguar Panthera onca Reflect the Post-Pleistocene Demise of Large Prey 



Human Hand and Cougar Paw

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https://www.wildlifedepartment.com/outdo...ying-sheep



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Size disparity of late Maastrichtian pterosaurs and birds.

Maastrichtian pterosaurs are larger than coeval birds in both marine (blue) and terrestrial/freshwater (orange) ecosystems. Wingspan estimates for pterosaurs are from S2 Data. Wingspans for terrestrial birds were made using estimated masses from Longrich et al. and the equation for passeriformes from Norberg or from reconstructions based on fossils.
http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2001663 



Inflatable Police Dingy v Great White Shark



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http://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-04-03/sh...86081723=1




Sea Lion v Northern 'True' Seal Flippers



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Rather than bearing typical flippers like those of otariids (a), phocine seals have paw-like forelimbs with distinct digits and robust claws (b). (a,b) External forelimb anatomy for otariids (male Australian sea lion Neophoca cinerea) and phocines (female harbour seal Phoca vitulina—PV11). (c,d) Skeletal anatomy of the forelimb in otariids (long-nosed fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri—mirrored) and phocines (juvenile harbour seal). The radiograph image in (d) was taken under the Alaska SeaLife Center's NOAA/NMFS Stranding Agreement. (e) Harbour seal (PV11) showing webbing between spread digits during swimming. (f) Harbour seal (PV11) showing distinct and mobile digits with strong claws.



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Unlike the flipper-like forelimbs of sea lions, northern ‘true’ seals have long robust claws, similar to those of a bear.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-04-sharp-claws-ancient-conquer-theoceans.html#jCp 



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#5
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3D models of aye-aye and squirrel skulls. Credit: Philip Cox, University of York
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#6
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#7
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#8
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#9
[Image: giant_predatory_dinosaurs_comparison__by...a6zspc.png]

Link
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#10
Sooooo is Tyrannosaurus Rex the largest Theropod currently?
The lone wolf dies, while the pack survives...
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#11
(08-23-2018, 03:13 AM)Grawlix Wrote: Sooooo is Tyrannosaurus Rex the largest Theropod currently?

When comparing the largest reliable specimens. Even the more average specimens tend to outweigh the animals above. There are estimates that Giga could get up to 8200kg, but those are based upon a dentary fragment, and those dont scale isometrically with the rest of the animal. If we took that into consideration, we might as well also consider UCMP as valid as well.

[Image: tyrannosaurus_rex_ontogeny__by_franoys-da3k5zl.png]

This is due in part to the fact that Tyrannosaurus rex has almost comically wide proportions compared to other theropods. That is best displayed here:

[Image: north+vs+south+redux.jpg?format=1500w]

Here's a comapison of the animals on top of one another:
[Image: JNRaWEn.jpg]

It should be noted that this information IS subject to change as more discoveries are made.


EDIT:

Here's a comparison between Tyrannosaurus and Spinosaurus:

[Image: GfZB0h1.png]

The actual model for the Spinosaurus shouldn't be considered accurate, as its legs are too small, but the size of the legs should be independant of the girth of the body. Please correct me if I'm wrong about that.
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#12
Music 
Livyatan melvillei and Tyrannosaurus rex.
[Image: 637828livytrex.jpg][Image: 891821livytrex1.jpg]
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#13
(08-23-2018, 04:07 AM)Atrox Wrote: *snip*

I'm going to assume that's Livyatan, in which case- that whale is dumb thicc.
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#14
(08-23-2018, 03:56 AM)Maxilla Wrote:
(08-23-2018, 03:13 AM)Grawlix Wrote: Sooooo is Tyrannosaurus Rex the largest Theropod currently?

When comparing the largest reliable specimens. Even the more average specimens tend to outweigh the animals above. There are estimates that Giga could get up to 8200kg, but those are based upon a dentary fragment, and those dont scale isometrically with the rest of the animal. If we took that into consideration, we might as well also consider UCMP as valid as well.

[Image: tyrannosaurus_rex_ontogeny__by_franoys-da3k5zl.png]

This is due in part to the fact that Tyrannosaurus rex has almost comically wide proportions compared to other theropods. That is best displayed here:

[Image: north+vs+south+redux.jpg?format=1500w]

Here's a comapison of the animals on top of one another:
[Image: JNRaWEn.jpg]

It should be noted that this information IS subject to change as more discoveries are made.


EDIT:

Here's a comparison between Tyrannosaurus and Spinosaurus:

[Image: GfZB0h1.png]

The actual model for the Spinosaurus shouldn't be considered accurate, as its legs are too small, but the size of the legs should be independant of the girth of the body. Please correct me if I'm wrong about that.

crazy how thicc Trex is such a powerful animal.
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#15
I have a question maxilla, wouldn't it makes sense that most toothed whale's body width immediately behind their skulls are just as wide/thick as the back of their heads? The wider the skull gets, the part of the body immediately behind of the animal needs to be correspondingly as wide.

(otherwise you'd get some weird looking animal). 

Just asking since some members from the old server compared them to the modern sperm whales instead of other extinct toothed whales.
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