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Warrior profiles
Aztec Warrior
The Aztec armed forces were typically composed of a large number of commoners, "those who have gone to war" who possessed only basic military training, and a smaller but still considerable number of professional warriors belonging to the nobility and who were organized into warrior societies and ranked according to their achievements. The Aztec state was centered on political expansion and dominance of and exaction of tribute from other city states, and warfare was the basic dynamic force in Aztec politics. Aztec societies was also centered on warfare: every Aztec male received basic military training from an early age and the only possibility of upwards social mobility for commoners was through military achievement — especially the taking of captives. Thus, only specifically chosen men served in the military. The sacrifice of war captives was an important part of many of the Aztec religious festivals. Warfare was thus the main driving force of both the Aztec economy and religion.

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Ranged weapons

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Ahtlatl: (perhaps lit. "non-sling") This weapon was meant to represent the Aztec God Opochtli. The Aztec dart thrower (known by the Spanish as estólica) was a weapon used to hurl small darts called "tlacochtli" with greater force and from greater range than they could be thrown by hand. This weapon was considered by the Aztecs to be suited only for royalty and the most elite warriors in the army, and was usually depicted as being the weapon of the Gods. Murals at Teotihuacan show warriors using this effective weapon and it is characteristic of the Mesoamerican cultures of central Mexico. Warriors at the front lines of the army would carry the ahtlatl and about three to five tlacochtli, and would launch them after the waves of arrows and sling projectiles as they advanced into battle before engaging into melee combat. The ahtlatl could also throw spears as its name implies "spear thrower".

Tlacochtli: The "darts" launched from an Atlatl, not so much darts but more like big arrows about 5.9 feet long. Tipped with obsidian, fish bones, or copper heads.

Tlahhuītōlli: The Aztec war bow, constructed from the wood of the tepozan tree, about five feet long and stringed with animal-sinew. Archers in the Aztec army were designated as Tequihua.

Mīcomītl: The Aztec arrow quiver usually made out of animal hide, it could hold about twenty arrows.

Yāōmītl: War arrows with barbed obsidian, chert, flint, or bone points. Typically fletched with turkey or duck feathers.

Tēmātlatl: A sling made from maguey fiber. The Aztecs used oval shaped rocks or hand molded clay balls filled with obsidian flakes or pebbles as projectiles for this weapon. Bernal Diaz del Castillo noted that the hail of stones flung by Aztec slingers was so furious that even well armored Spanish soldiers were wounded.

Tlacalhuazcuahuitl: A blowgun consisting of a hollow reed using poisoned darts for ammunition. The darts used for this weapon were made out of sharpened wood fletched with cotton and usually doused in the neurotoxic secretions from the skin of tree frogs found in jungle areas of central Mexico. This was used primarily for hunting rather than warfare.

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Melee weaponry
Mācuahuitl: (lit. "hand-wood", or "wood at hand") This weapon was supposed to represent the Aztec God Tezcatlipoca. Essentially a wooden sword with sharp obsidian blades embedded into its sides (similar in appearance and build to a modern cricket bat). This was the standard armament of the elite cadres. Also known in Spanish by the Taino word "macana". A blow from such a weapon was reputedly capable of decapitating a horse.

Tepoztōpīlli: Wooden spear with a broad head edged with sharp obsidian blades.

Quauholōlli: A mace-like weapon, the handle was made out of wood topped with a wooden, rock, or copper ball or sphere.

Tlāximaltepōztli: This weapon was meant to represent the Aztec God Tepoztecatl. Basically an axe, comparable to a tomahawk, the head of which was made out of either stone, copper or bronze and had a two side design, one side had a sharp bladed edge while the other one a blunt protrusion.

Mācuāhuitzōctli: A club about 1.64 ft. long, with a knob on each of its four sides and a pointed tip.

Huitzauhqui: This weapon was meant to represent the Aztec God Huitzilopochtli. A wooden club, somewhat resembling a baseball bat. This weapon was used for melee attacks just as it was made, but other designs were studded with flint or obsidian cutting elements on its sides.

Tecpatl: This weapon was meant to represent the Aztec God Xiuhtecuhtli. A dagger with a double sided blade made out of flint or obsidian with an elaborate stone or wooden handle, seven to nine inches overall in length. Although this would have been an effective side arm, this weapon was more commonly used in Aztec sacrifice ceremonies which may point to it being wielded mostly by Aztec warrior priests. 
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Chīmalli: Shields made with different materials such as the wooden shield "cuauhchimalli" or maize cane "otlachimalli". There were also ornamental shields decorated with motifs made in featherwork, these were called māhuizzoh chimalli.

Ichcahuīpīlli: Quilted cotton armor which was soaked in salt water brine and then hung to dry in shade so that the salt would crystallize inside of it. One or two fingers thick, this material was resistant to obsidian swords and atlatl darts.

Ēhuatl: (lit. "skin") The tunic that some noble warriors wore over their cotton armour or tlahuiztli, known in Spanish as tilma.

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Tlahuiztli: The distinctively decorated suits of prestigious warriors and members of warrior societies. These suits served as a way to identify warriors according to their achievements in battle as well as rank, alliance, and social status like priesthood or nobility. Usually made to work as a single piece of clothing with an opening in the back, they covered the entire torso and most of the extremities of a warrior, and offered added protection to the wearer. Made with elements of animal hide, leather, and cotton, the tlahuiztli was most effective by enhancing the Ichcahuipilli.

Cuacalalatli: The Aztec war helmet, carved out of hardwood. Shaped to represent different animals like howler monkeys, predatory cats, birds, coyotes, or Aztec deities. These helmets protected most of a warriors head down to the jawline, the design allowed the warrior to see through the animal's open jaw and they were decorated according to the wearer's tlahuiztli.

Pāmitl: The identifying emblems that officers and members of prestigious warrior societies wore on their backs. Similar to the Japanese sashimono. These were frequently unique to their wearers, and were meant to identify the warrior at a distance. These banners allowed officers to coordinate the movement of their units.

Sub categories: 

Quote:Jaguar warrior (Aztec Warrior)
Jaguar warriors or jaguar knights, or ocēlōmeh were members of the Aztec military elite.They were a type of Aztec warrior called a cuāuhocēlōtl, The word cuāuhocēlōtl derives from the Eagle warrior cuāuhtli and the Jaguar Warrior ocēlōtl. They were an elite military unit similar to the eagle warriors. The
Jaguar motif was used due to the belief the jaguar represented Tezcatlipoca. Aztecs also wore this dress at war because they believed the animal's strengths would be given to them during battles. Jaguar warriors were used at the battlefront in military campaigns. They were also used to capture prisoners for sacrifice to the Aztec gods. Many statues and images (in pre-Columbian and post-Columbian codices) of these warriors have survived. They fought with a wooden sword studded with obsidian volcanic glass blades, called a macuahuitl. They also used spears and atlatls. To become a jaguar warrior, a member of the Aztec army had to capture twelve enemies during two consecutive battles. This was said to honor their gods in a way far greater than killing enemy soldiers in the battlefield. For a warrior to kill an enemy was considered clumsy.
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Quote:Eagle Warrior (Aztec Warrior)
Eagle warriors
or eagle knights were a special class of infantry soldier in the Aztec army, one of the two leading military special forces orders in Aztec society. They were a type of Aztec warrior called a cuāuhocēlōtl. The word cuāuhocēlōtl derives from the eagle warrior cuāuhtli and the jaguar warrior.These military orders were made up of the bravest soldiers of noble birth and those who had taken the greatest number of prisoners in battle. Of all of the Aztec warriors, they were the most feared. Eagle warriors, along with the jaguar warrior, were the only such classes which did not restrict access solely to the nobility, as commoners or, in Nahuatl, "mācēhualli" were occasionally admitted for special merit. The eagles were soldiers of the Sun, for the eagle was the symbol of the Sun. Eagle warriors dressed like eagles, adorning themselves with eagle feathers, and wearing headgear with an eagle head on it.
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[-] The following 3 users Like Aztec's post:
  • Kazanshin, Lightning, theGrackle
Very interesting, I must say. I had no idea there was so much info about Aztec warriors

Also Aztec, I recently posted a new Fantasy thread which may interest you.
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Gilbert Islanders brandish swords studded with sharks' teeth.  Pacific islanders fashioned several types of weapons using shark teeth.  Islanders in the photo are wearing helmets of porcupine fish skin and coir armor.

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The Gilbert Islanders were the most warlike of the Micronesians and were famous for their vicious weapons made of coconut wood and edged with shark teeth.  As defense against these they had developed complete body armor consisting of a sort of union suit woven from heavy strands of coconut fiber, a corselet and helmet.  This armor not only protected the wearer but also served to catch and break the teeth on his antagonists' weapons.  In battle each armored man was accompanied by one or more unarmored squires who acted as skirmishers until the battle was joined, then stood behind their armored lord to pass him new weapons as needed.

To protect themselves against the ugly wounds inflicted by their shark tooth weapons (particularly the long wooden spears and pole arms), warriors on the Gilbert Islands used to wear heavy armour made from coconut-fibre and helmets either of the same material or cut from globefish skin. Being restricted in their movement and easily tired by the weight of their protective garment, an assistant had to direct and hold the fighter from the back.

To shield themselves, warriors wore helmets made of the skin of porcupine fish with quill-like spines, knotted coconut-fibre leggings/pants, and body armour that covered the torso and had an additional head-and-neck protective shield that rose from the back of the armour.  The body armour was finely woven of coconut fibre and decorated with human hair in designs often based on diamonds.  The backshield was especially important for protection from flying stones.

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Inuit Warrior
The Inuit of the Central and Eastern Canadian Arctic, especially the Utku and Qipisa communities, have traditionally tried to avoid manifestations of anger, though there is no question that violence has occurred. Some Inuit groups have even fought wars, particularly with the Indians who lived to the south of them, both during prehistoric times and well into the period after European settlements. For a hundred years in the 17th and 18th centuries, Europeans posted at fur trading forts on both sides of Hudson Bay and James Bay recorded in tedious detail protracted instances of warfare between the local Cree Indians and the Inuit just to the north.
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Ranged Weaponry

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Pititsik: A traditional recurve bow with cable backing with a string made of elastic animal tendons and a shaft of hardwood. A common hunting weapon among Inuit and quite probably one of, if not the weapon they are most skilled with.

Katjuk: Arrows used by the Inuit when hunting and fighting. Tips are typically barbed and made of bone, flint, iron or copper.

Sajuppilak: An Inuit quiver made of leather.

Nigak: A sling made of leather and fiber. The most commonly used projectile were rocks, but balls of bone were also used.

Bola: A hunting tool usually used to entangle the legs of long-legged animals such as moose or reindeer. Made of rawhide strings and solid balls of bone.

Spear thrower: (Sorry, couldn't find the name) A tool used to throw spears and harpoons further and with more power than with bare hands. Made of wood, bone and sometimes copper.

Nuit: A barbed spear with three points, typically used to catch small animals by throwing it with the spear thrower. Tip is made of bone.

Melee Weaponry

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Unak: The harpoon commonly used by Inuit to hunt large animals. Acts as a good close range weapon and doubles as a long range one when coupled with the spear thrower. Tip made of bone, flint, iron, copper or jade. 1.8 meter long.

War club: One of the most common Native North American weapons. Multiple types of war clubs have been discovered, but Inuit ones are usually straight up sticks of bone or a ball headed club with a wooden or ivory shaft and a stone ball. Up to 60cm long.

Savik: Hunting knife used to carve meat, cut ice to make igloos or as a secondary weapon in a fight. Blade made of ivory, but iron knives have also been found. 20-30 cm long.

Ulimautik: An axe similar to tomahawks used to cut wood or fight. Typically pretty short, with the longer ones reaching 30-40cm.

Ulu: Knife-hatchet hybrid, typically used by women to skin prey, and only used a weapon as a last resort.

Shark-toothed sword: A sword barbed with the teeth of a Greenland Shark. Very similar to weapons used by various Polynesian cultures.

Titlak: Pickaxe for mining that doubles as an armor penetrating weapon when swung. Shaft of spruce wood and blade of bone or ivory.

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Bone lamellar: A lamellar style armor made from laminated pieces of bone and ivory. Records have shown that they can stop arrows, and researches show that bone is three times more durable than white oak.

Jaikak: Leather and fur coat made of caribou and moose fur. Typically 3 inches thick and providing defense against attacks and the cold.

Shield: Shields used by Inuit were made of wooden slates and covered with seal skin. Usually used to protect the user from long range attacks such as arrows or harpoons.

Mapuche Warrior

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The Mapuches are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia. The collective term refers to a wide-ranging ethnicity composed of various groups who shared a common social, religious and economic structure, as well as a common linguistic heritage as Mapudungun speakers. Their influence once extended from the Aconcagua River to the Chiloé Archipelago and spread later eastward to the Argentine pampa. Today the collective group makes up over 80% of the indigenous peoples in Chile, and about 9% of the total Chilean population. They are particularly concentrated in Araucanía. Many have migrated to the Santiago area for economic opportunities.

Ranged Weaponry

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[b]Mapuche bow:[/b] (sorry, couldn't find the Mapuche word) A composite bow made from multiple types of wood and a string made of fiber. The main weapon used by Mapuche warriors when fighting against the Spanish.

Pulki: Mapuche arrows for warfare. Made of wood and with a tip of stone.

Bola: One of the main weapons used by Mapuche, and the most iconic. The Mapuche were actually the first enemies the Europeans faced who used bolas. Made of fiber ropes and two stone balls.

Sling: (Again, couldn't find the name. Sorry, Mapudungun translations are very hard to find) A simple sling made of fibers and cotton. Being a normal sling, throws rocks.

Melee Weaponry
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Toqui:An axe carried by the "Axe-carriers", warleaders chosen by the council of chiefs. 30cm long and made of stone in the shape of a hawk's head, representing the warrior's ancestors.

Stone mace: A simple mace with a stone head, similar to the stereotypical "caveman" mace. 40-50cm

Clava: A stone club, very similar in shape to Polynesian patu clubs. Blade-like head that allows it to concentrate the strike's force on one point. 30cm

Tacuara spear: A spear made from tacuara, a bamboo-like plant that grows in South America. Light and maneuverable. Mainly used from horseback after the introduction of horses by the Spanish, but traditionally used on foot. 2.5 meters.


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Poncho: A traditional Mapuche clothing made of cotton or fibers. Provides some level of defense against attacks, at least according to a Mapuche descendant I know.
[-] The following 4 users Like Kazanshin's post:
  • Aztec, Lightning, ScottishWildcat, theGrackle
Great thread.

Who would win in a fight between an Aztec Jaguar and an Aztec Eagle?
(09-27-2018, 10:04 PM)Lightning Wrote: Great thread.  

Who would win in a fight between an Aztec Jaguar and an Aztec Eagle?

They're basically the same. It's like comparing the Navy SEALs to the Army Rangers, or something like that. They have access to the same weapons, have about the same amount of training and are both as experienced in combat.
Tlingit Warrior
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The Tlingit were a seafaring people, skilled fishers, traders and hunters-gatherers, who were located southern Alaska in the United States and British Columbia and the Yukon in Canada. The Tlingit were believed to have settled in the region for thousands of years. The first recorded contact by Europeans with the Tlingit people started in 1745 when Russian traders started to explore Alaska. The Russians initiated trade with the Tlingit for sea-otter pelts and other items. By 1772 the Russians had established permanent settlements and trading posts in the area. Although initial contact with the Russians was peaceful the culture clash soon led to conflicts and wars. In 1794 the first Russian Orthodox missionaries arrived from Russia to convert Alaskan Native Indians and in 1799 Russian claimed the whole of Alaska for themselves. In 1804 the Battle of Sitka, was fought between European and Alaska Natives and in 1805 the Tlingit attacked and destroyed the Russian post at New Russia.

Melee Weaponry

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Gwalaa: A dagger made traditionally of copper and later of steel. Double edged, with the pommel also being a blade. 40 cm long

Ashaawaxich: A large two handed club used by Tlingit. Made of hardwood and capable of shattering a man's skull in a single strike. 1.5 meters long.

Tayees: A simple stone axe commonly used to chop wood. 50cm long.

Shanaxwaayi: A war axe with a more pick-like blade. The wooden handle is carved in the shape of a wolf, a bear or some other animal. The blade is made of nephrite. 60cm long.

Kei'tu: A war pick with a blade of bone capable of punching through armor. Swung with both arms. 60  cm long.

Aadaa: A barbed spear, also used as a harpoon to hunt large animals. Tip made of bone or copper. Up to 5 meters long.

Ranged weaponry

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Saks: A traditional bow of sprucewood used for both warfare and hunting. Slowly become obsolete with the introduction of muskets, but was still widely used for its silence and reliability.

Chooneit: Arrows used by the Tlingit and shot with the Saks bow. Tipped with bone, stone or copper.

Jux'aa: A sling made of leather and fiber. Used to, well, throw rocks.

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 A body armor made of wooden slates, often decorated with bizarre and ghoulish drawings and carvings. Sometimes backed by a chainmail-like suit of Chinese coins. Has been accounted to stop musket bullets.[/size]

Kinaak-at: A thick coat of leather and fur made from caribou skin. Provides protection against arrows, blunt force, slashes and the cold.

Tinaa: A large shield of wood and copper, capable of blocking arrows, spears, and just about anything that comes its way.
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  • Aztec
(09-27-2018, 10:09 PM)Kazanshin Wrote:
(09-27-2018, 10:04 PM)Lightning Wrote: Great thread.  

Who would win in a fight between an Aztec Jaguar and an Aztec Eagle?

They're basically the same. It's like comparing the Navy SEALs to the Army Rangers, or something like that. They have access to the same weapons, have about the same amount of training and are both as experienced in combat.
More like Navy SEALs and Army Special Forces Army Ranger are different in training and role in combat

^same job different name sort of.
The night is dark and full of terrors
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  • Kazanshin
The navy seals, mma fighters, martial artist would be the modern days warriors.
(10-13-2018, 03:55 PM)bluefirehawk Wrote: The navy seals, mma fighters, martial artist would be the modern days warriors.

I think just warfighters in general, not just SEALs, but mma and martial artists are used for more of entertainment today like gladiators except for the slavery and death.
The night is dark and full of terrors
Maximus was a gladiator yet he was also known as a hero.
I meant in general but Mohammed Ali was a fighter also known as a hero same with Paquiao and others. It’s similar both mma and gladiatorial matches were mainly for entertainment but like Paquiao I’m sure others have joined militaries but mma is that useful in today’s military as gladiator fighting styles. But just choosing such a small unit of military ie navy SEALs does a disservice to other units.
The night is dark and full of terrors
Koa Hawaiian Warrior
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The ancient Hawaiian warriors were the battlefield fighters that would go to war for their territory and livelihood in the Hawaiian isles. Each of the major Hawaiian islands would have their own chief, and of course power and status was their priority. The Hawaiian elite warriors commonly known as the Koa, were the main tools for the chiefs, and were their most trained and skilled warriors. In addition to the elite skills of the Koa warriors, the chiefs would employ hundreds of infantry men and skirmish fighters to obtain their power, retain their rule and ensure the future success of their islands.

When battle would come, and in ancient Hawaii the chiefs did love their battles, they would sometimes try to settle the battle with minimal blood loss. The best fighters from each force would fight in the centre of the battlefield, a discussion would ensue and if diplomatic solutions could not be reached from this battle, then there was the potentionl for war. Of course, often a resolution was not achieved, and commonly war for power, status and glory would ensue, with the Hawaiian Koa and the rest of the warriors engaging in a bloody battle that cound last for days, weeks and months.

The Hawaiian Warrior Classes

In addition to the most well known Hawaiian warriors, the Koa, the cheifs would employ mass warfare also loosing less skilled fighters to bulk out their ranks.

The Hawaiian Koa Warriors
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Hawaiian Koa Warriors

The Hawaiian Koa warriors were the elite fighters of the islands, and their name originated from the tree they would use to fashion their weapons, the Koa tree. Not only would the tree provide the Koa their name, it would provide then as with all their battle tools, which were vast and diverse, suitable for all types of battlefield combat.

The Koa themselves, were deadly serious about the art of war, and their preparation was extreme and diligent. The Hawaiian Koa would shave their body and apply natural oils, ensuring that in a tight clinch, the enemy would struggle to get a proper grip. Clothing would be minimal too, partly due to the warm climate of their environment and for ease of manoeuvrability, for this reason the Koa would only wear a loincloth to battle.
Brutal in battle the Koa would stay fit religiously, using the martial art of Lua to stay in shape. Their skills were well known, but never taught to outsiders and the Koa could use their skills to hurt, maim and break bones with ease. Told to be a mix of grappling, striking and submission holds, Lua was the key to the Koa’s success when the battle lines closed.
The Hawaiian Infantry As well as the mighty Koa, the Hawaiians would also employ standard infantry in battle. Less skilled and not as well equipped, the infantry of the Hawaiian warriors would bring their force en mass, with hundreds of warriors all equipped with pikes engaging the enemy. While the basic Hawaiian infantry were not up to the par of the Koa, they were still essential in the power struggles that existed in the ancient Hawaiian isles.

The Art of Lua
The ancient Hawaiian warriors were masters of the ancient art of Lua, which was not only a martial art, but a way of thinking, being and also healing. Lua consisted of a variety of attacks, from strikes like punching and kicking, to grappling and holds. The Koa would practise their Lua using a form of dance or a kata similar to Karate, which for the Hawaiians was know as Haka. In many ways Lua is very similar to other forms of rythemic movements like Capoaira.

Lua was also very elite and private, the Hawaiians and the nobles worked exceptionally hard to keep the ancient art secret by whatever means they could, the skill and art would only be shared with those the nobles deemed worthy to art the ancient art.

Hawaiian Warrior Weaponry
The Hawaiian warrior weapons were if nothing else extremely diverse, from close combat hand held weapons to sling and ranged weapons, the Hawaiians had all ranges of combat covered. For long range battle the ancient Hawaiian warriors would launch missile attacks like sling shots and spears. The Hawaiian spears, or pikes were massive, ranging up to 15 feet in length and could be thrown or used for closer quarter combat.

When the battle lines closed, the Hawaiians were equally well equipped at a mid range, where they would employ their throwing axe that could also be used as a melee weapon if required. At close quarters the Koa could employ the laumeki spear, their clubs, wooden daggers and even knuckle dusters. Fighting up close with a Koa warrior was not something to be taken lightly regardless of your skills.

Hawaiian Warrior Armour
Armour for the Hawaiian warriors and the Koa was not heavily favoured, their style of attacks were such that body movement was seen as a big advantage, and due to the fact the Hawaiians would typically be fighing other Hawaiians the battlefield was in essence, even on the armour front.

Battle Tactics
With their unique martial arts skills, battle savvy and tactics, the Koa were able to launch vicious attacks on their foe. Before this happened though, the chief would attempt to rain down projectiles on the enemy using their skirmish ranks. When the enemy was confused and scattered the infantrymen with their pikes would close the distance along with the Koa warriors. Up close the fight would get messy, the brutal fighting style of the Hawaiian warriors and their diverse arsenal would allow them to inflict damage on the enemy in a multitude of styles.

The Hawaiian Warriors in Summary
With their mastery of the ancient martial art of Lua, their battle ferocity and their diverse range of weaponry, the Hawaiian warriors the Koa were fearsome foes, not to be trifled with on the battlefield less you wished bodily harm to be inflicted upon your person.
Chichimeca Warrior 
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Chichimeca was the name that the Nahua peoples of Mexico generically applied to nomadic and semi-nomadicpeoples who were established in present-day Bajio region of Mexico. Chichimeca carried the same sense as the Roman term "barbarian" to describe Germanic tribes. The name, with its pejorative sense, was adopted by the Spanish Empire. For the Spanish, in the words of scholar Charlotte M. Gradie, "the Chichimecas were a wild, nomadic people who lived north of the Valley of Mexico. They had no fixed dwelling places, lived by hunting, wore little clothes and fiercely resisted foreign intrusion into their territory, which happened to contain silver mines the Spanish wished to exploit." In modern times, only one ethnic group is customarily referred to as Chichimecs, namely the Chichimeca Jonaz, a few thousand of whom live in the state of Guanajuato.  

The Chicimec, Caxcanes and other indigenous people of Northern Mexico fought against Spanish military forces, such as Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán, when they began trying to enslave them. Their fight against Spanish military forces became known as the Mixtón Rebellion. In the late sixteenth century, Gonzalo de las Casas wrote about the Chichimec. He had received an encomienda near Durango and fought in the wars against the Chichimec peoples: the Pame, the Guachichile, the Guamari and the Zacateco, who lived in the area known at the time as "La Gran Chichimeca." Las Casas' account was called Report of the Chichimeca and the Justness of the War Against Them. He described the people, providing ethnographic information. He wrote that they only covered their genitalia with clothing; painted their bodies; and ate only game, roots and berries. 

Chichimeca military strikes against the Spanish included raidings, ambushing critical economic routes, and pillaging. In the long-running Chichimeca War (1550–1590), the Spanish initially attempted to defeat the combined Chichimeca peoples in a war of "fire and blood", but eventually sought peace as they were unable to defeat them. The Chichimeca's small-scale raids proved effective. To end the war, the Spanish adopted a "Purchase for Peace" program by providing foods, tools, livestock, and land to the Chichimecas, sending Spanish to teach them agriculture as a livelihood, and by passively converting them to Catholicism. Within a century, the Spanish and Chichimeca were assimilated.

" Their bows were short, usually less than four feet long, their arrows were long and thin and made of reed and tipped with obsidian, volcanic rock sharper than a modern-day razor. Despite the fragility of the obsidian arrows they had excellent penetrating qualities, even against Spanish armor which was de rigueur for soldiers fighting the Chichimeca. Many-layered buckskin armor was preferred to chain mail as obsidian arrows penetrated the links of the mail."
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"One of don Alonso de Castilla's soldiers had an arrow pass through the head of his horse, including a crownpiece of double buckskin and metal, and into his chest, so he fell with the horse dead on the ground 'this was seen by many who are still living' (Powell 48)."
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  • Kazanshin
Shouldn't each have their own threads?

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