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English Bull Terrier (Standard & Miniature)
English Bull Terrier (Standard & Miniature)

Description :
A thick-set muscular, well-proportioned animal, the Bull Terrier has a short, dense coat that comes in pure white, black, brindle, red, fawn and tri-color. Its most distinctive feature is its head, which is almost flat at the top, sloping evenly down to the end of the nose with no stop. The eyes are small, dark, almond-shaped and closely set. The body is full and round, while the shoulders are robust and muscular and the tail is carried horizontally.

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Height & Weight :
Standard Bull Terrier : Height: 20-24 inches (51-61 cm.) Weight: 45-80 pounds (20-36 kg.)
Miniature Bull Terrier : Height: 10-14 inches (25-33 cm) Weight: up to 24-33 pounds (11-15 kg)

Origins :
In 1830, when combats between Bulldogs and bulls were at there height, lovers of this "sport" decided to create a dog that would attack even more agilely. By crossing the Bulldog with the Old English Terrier and adding a bit of Spanish Pointer blood, they came up with the Bull Terrier. However, Bull Terriers were not the most successful fighters. In 1850 the white-coated variety (nicknamed the "White Cavalier") was obtained and soon became a fashionable pet of the gentry. The breed has been used as a guard, ratter, herder and watchdog. The Miniature was developed to have the same qualities in a dog of more manageable size.

Temperament :
Though this breed was once a fierce gladiator, he is much gentler now. A Bull Terrier might have a preventive effect and it might defend it's owner in a truly critical situation, but it isn't breed to be a guard dog. Courageous, scrappy, fun-loving, active, clownish and fearless. The Bull Terrier is a loyal, polite, and obedient dog. They become very attached to their owners. The Bull Terrier thrives on affection and makes a fine family pet. Bull Terriers like to be doing something and fit in well with active families where they receive a great deal of companionship and supervision. They do not do well in situations where they are left alone for 8 hours a day. This breed can be a wonderful pet if very thoroughly socialized and trained, but not recommended for most households. Fond of both grown-ups and children, but may be too energetic for small children. They cannot tolerate teasing and children should be taught to respect the dog. They can be very protective and willful. Do not encourage this breed to be possessive or jealous. Bull Terriers may try to join into family rough housing or quarrel. They need very firm training and lots of exercise. Bull Terriers must be given a lot of companionship, or they may become destructive. Be sure to socialize them well. They can be extremely aggressive with other dogs. Unaltered males usually do not get along with other male dogs. Males and females can live together happily and two females can also be a good combination with care and supervision. They are not recommended with other pets. They make excellent watch dogs. This breed can be somewhat difficult to train.

[Image: bulici.jpg]

Health Issues :
Bull Terriers are generally healthy, but some are prone to suffer from a zinc deficiency, which can cause death. Some pups are born deaf. Some suffer from obsessive compulsive behaviors, such as tail chasing. Some bloodlines are prone to slipped patella (dislocation of the kneecaps). Some male Bull Terriers have an overabundance of testosterone, which makes them too territorial. Neutering often fixes the problem - mellowing the dog out some. Can be sensitive to fleas or other parasites. Prone to weight gain allergy troubles and bad knees. White Bull Terriers are prone to deafness.

Exercise Required :
Bull Terriers will do okay in an apartment if they are sufficiently exercised. They are fairly active indoors and a small yard will do. They prefer warm climates. 
This breed needs vigorous daily exercise, but they should always be on a lead in public at all times, because they will fight with other dogs. The Bull Terrier has a tendency to become overweight and lazy if it is not properly exercised. 

Life Expectancy :
About 10-12 years 

Litter Size :
As little as 1 puppy and as many as 9 - Average 5

Grooming :
The Bull Terrier is easy to groom. An occasional combing and brushing will do. This breed is an average shedder, shedding twice a year. You can remove loose hair by a daily rubdown with a special rubber glove. White hairs are more noticeable than the colored ones on furniture and clothes. 

Group :
Mastiff, AKC Terrier

Source :

^ The above is a replacement of the original profile that I accidentally deleted and could not retrieve. Apologies.

Genetic cause of deadly skin condition afflicting bull terriers discovered

March 22, 2018, Public Library of Science

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LAD affected puppy in the middle of two nonaffected littermates. A pronounced growth delay and a subtle coat color dilution are visible. Credit: Anina Bauer and colleagues

In a new study published March 22nd, 2018 in PLOS Genetics, Anina Bauer of the University of Bern and a large international research team, report the discovery of a mutation that causes lethal acrodermatitis (LAD), a deadly condition that causes skin lesions on the paws and face of affected dogs.

LAD is an inherited disease in dogs that causes painful, infected wounds on the paws, as well as poor growth, immune problems and death, usually before two years of age. The disease tends to run in families of bull terriers and miniature bull terriers but is poorly understood and has no known cure. The clinical course of LAD is very similar as in human acrodermatitis enteropathica, which is caused by zinc deficiency. However, in contrast to the deadly dog disease, human acrodermatitis enteropathica can easily by cured by supplementation with zinc. Researchers compared the genomes of LAD affected and healthy dogs to pinpoint the cause to a mutation in the gene that codes for the protein muskelin 1. The mutation alters the splicing of the messenger RNA and thus leads to a lack of functional muskelin 1, which plays diverse roles in cellular shape, adhesion and spreading, and intracellular transport. While the physiological cause of LAD is still unknown, the findings reveal a novel role for muskelin 1 in maintaining a healthy immune system and skin.

The discovery of the mutation that causes LAD will allow veterinarians and breeders to test for the disease, for rapid diagnosis and to prevent the breeding of affected dogs. The study also provides a starting point to investigate the physiological cause of the various clinical manifestations related to LAD, which thus far has eluded researchers. For human patients with unsolved zinc-unresponsive acrodermatitis or immune deficiency problems, mutations affecting muskelin 1 are one potential cause worth investigating.

Corresponding author Tosso Leeb adds: "LAD has been known for more than 30 years and the genetic defect is present at an alarmingly high frequency in Bull Terriers and Miniature Bull Terriers. The results of our research will facilitate genetic testing and should allow to immediately end the unintentional breeding of further affected dogs. I am very curious to see when we will finally understand the diverse functions of the enigmatic protein muskelin 1".

Journal Reference:
Bauer A, Jagannathan V, Högler S, Richter B, McEwan NA, Thomas A, et al. (2018) MKLN1 splicing defect in dogs with lethal acrodermatitis. PLoS Genet 14(3): e1007264.

Lethal acrodermatitis (LAD) is a genodermatosis with monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance in Bull Terriers and Miniature Bull Terriers. The LAD phenotype is characterized by poor growth, immune deficiency, and skin lesions, especially at the paws. Utilizing a combination of genome wide association study and haplotype analysis, we mapped the LAD locus to a critical interval of ~1.11 Mb on chromosome 14. Whole genome sequencing of an LAD affected dog revealed a splice region variant in the MKLN1 gene that was not present in 191 control genomes (chr14:5,731,405T>G or MKLN1:c.400+3A>C). This variant showed perfect association in a larger combined Bull Terrier/Miniature Bull Terrier cohort of 46 cases and 294 controls. The variant was absent from 462 genetically diverse control dogs of 62 other dog breeds. RT-PCR analysis of skin RNA from an affected and a control dog demonstrated skipping of exon 4 in the MKLN1 transcripts of the LAD affected dog, which leads to a shift in the MKLN1 reading frame. MKLN1 encodes the widely expressed intracellular protein muskelin 1, for which diverse functions in cell adhesion, morphology, spreading, and intracellular transport processes are discussed. While the pathogenesis of LAD remains unclear, our data facilitate genetic testing of Bull Terriers and Miniature Bull Terriers to prevent the unintentional production of LAD affected dogs. This study may provide a starting point to further clarify the elusive physiological role of muskelin 1 in vivo.
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