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Tayra - Eira barbara
#16
Attempted predation on Brazilian rabbit (Sylvilagus brasiliensis - Lagomorpha: Leporidae) by tayra (Eira barbara - Carnivora: Mustelidae)

The tayra Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) is a very common neotropical mustelid with a wide distribution. Although it usually lives in undisturbed primary forest it also occurs in disturbed habitats (Emmons and Feer 1997). I report here an observation of attempted predation by a tayra in the western Amazon, in Acre, Brazil.

The observation occurred about 25 km from the city of Rio Branco at Fazenda Experimental Catuaba (10º4’S and 67º37’W), with 820 ha of disturbed forest.

At 8:45 a.m. on 04 June 1998, I observed an adult Brazilian rabbit Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758), running across the trail at a distance of about 4 m from the observing point. Five behind the Brazilian rabbit an adult of Eira barbara came running in pursuit but retreated with observer presence. The local forest has a open canopy, there are many palms and the understory is closed.

Sylvilagus brasiliensis are nocturnal animals, and tayras are primarily diurnal (Emmons and Feer 1997). This could explain why it is hardly cited in literature as being part of the diet of tayras. Therefore, more research is necessary to affirm Sylvilagus brasiliensis as accidental item food in diet of Eira barbara

http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php?scrip...0000100033
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#17
The tayra as a possible predator of monkeys

One other possible carnivoran predator of New World monkeys is the tayra (Eira barbara , Mustelidae). The tayra is cathemeral (Sunquist et al., 1989; Emmons, 
1990; Presley, 2000), but its eyesight is reported to be poor (Defl er, 1980). The tayra is the only mustelid in the Neotropics that exhibits arboreality (Eisenberg, 1981), although progression is generally along the forest fl oor (Emmons, 1990). There are several reports of close encounters between tayras and ceboids. In a study of the Panamanian tamarin (S.geoffroyi) , Moynihan (1970, p. 4) relates a secondhand account of a tayra, ‘carrying a dead tamarin in its mouth’. Galef et al. (1976) suggested 
that tayras might be important predators of callitrichis and small cebids, and Hernandez-Camacho and Cooper (1976) reported a tayra being observed in rapid pursuit of a troop of tufted capuchins (C. apella) . Izawa (1978) described a foraging tayra coming dangerously close to a sleeping group of black mantled tamarins (S. nigricollis) , before it caught sight of the observer and withdrew. Defl er (1980) observed a tayra attempt an arboreal pursuit of a white fronted capuchin monkey (C. albifrons);  although the capuchin threatened the tayra (i.e. showing canines, making stare threats, branch breaking and growling), it also easily leapt away from the tayra, 
which was described as being a clumsy climber. In contrast, Redford and Eisenberg (1992) describe the tayra as an excellent climber. Compared to the fossa and felids, however, the tayra has a relatively low degree of forepaw dexterity (Iwaniuk et al., 2000), so less agility in the trees might be expected. Defl er (1980) concluded that tayras were only a minor threat to Cebus compared to predatory birds. Because 
tayras also eat fruit, Defl er [1980] further suggested that interactions between tayras and white-fronted capuchins could actually come about due to feeding competition for fruit rather than predation attempts by tayras. Terborgh (1983) considered the tayra as being capable of occasionally ambushing ground-foraging Cebus or squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sp.), but also stated no such attacks had been witnessed. More recently, Phillips (1995) observed both white-faced capuchins (C. capucinus) and mantled howler monkeys on Barro Colorado Island give ‘aggressive vocalizations’ towards a tayra; the capuchins also threatened the tayra and lunged at it, while the 
howler monkeys remained high in emergent trees, vocalizing. Stafford and Ferreira (1995) described a group of seven reintroduced golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) suddenly reversing their direction of travel, scattering and beginning to 
alarm call following what was apparently an unsuccessful predation attempt by a tayra in the forest subcanopy (at a height of 3–5 m); the golden lion tamarins began alarm calling only after they had retreated to a distance of approximately 10 m from 
the tayra. Because the authors sighted the tayra only after the golden lion tamarins began fl eeing, it was unclear to them whether the tayra had been lying in ambush, stalking the L. rosalia , or if it they had observed a chance encounter between the two 
species. Both the tayra and the golden lion tamarins left the area immediately after the encounter, but the golden lion tamarins continued their vocalizing for another 13 min. This report is signifi cant because there has been concern among researchers 
about the risk of tayra predation of reintroduced L. rosalia (Fernandez-Duque, pers. comm.). Asensio and Gomez-Marin (2002) observed a group of four adult tayras display aggressive behaviour towards a group of mantled howler monkeys; 2 adult female howler monkeys approached the tayras, causing the tayras to retreat. Asensio and Gomez-Marin (2002) also note that a successful predation of a primate by a tayra has not been observed (cf. Moynihan’s 1970 secondhand account, above), and they conclude that unlike the jaguar and harpy eagle, the tayra is not a serious threat to the howler monkey (see also Terborgh, 1983).
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#18
Remarkable altitudinal range extension of Eira barbara Tayra (Mammalia: Mustelidae).

[Image: Figura-1-Localidades-de-Eira-barbara-en-...-sobre.png]
Localities of Eira barbara in Ecuador that extend their altitudinal range over 2600 m, the triangles represent camera trap stations in: 1) Chamanapamba Nature Reserve; 2) Cerro La Candelaria Protected Forest. Reference points: 3) Tungurahua Volcano; 4) Holy Water Baths.

Between December 2011 and March 2012 we obtained photographs of Eira barbara in four sampling stations located in the cloud forests of the Chamanapamba Nature Reserve (stations TT7 and TT8) and Cerro La Candelaria Protected Forest (stations T.6 and T.10) ) located between 2665 and 3100 m of altitude. All these records increase the altitudinal range known for the species. In particular, the registration within the cloud forest of the Chamanapamba Nature Reserve
that reaches the 3100 meters of elevation.

The ecological habits of the species have not been widely documented, however, it is presumed that these individuals make large displacements in search of resources, having defined a life area of 530 ha. and establishing the use of various types of habitat available for the species. This premise would allow us to suppose that E. barbara uses different routes in the study area as accesses to areas with greater availability of resources, which would correspond
to the Sangay National Park.

During the field trips it was possible to show the arboreal and elusive habits of the species, observing an individual descending quickly from a tree, upon noticing the closeness of people (G. Ríos Alvear, obspers.). Eira Barbara exhibited curious behavior towards camera traps, destroying one of them. The aggressor could be identified by reviewing the videos, where an individual of E. barbara sniffs the camera, bites the lens and finally scratches the sensor until it breaks completely.
There is a specimen of E. barbara deposited in the Field Museum of Chicago (FMNH 70767) collected in the Balcones River, municipality of Guasca, department from Cundinamarca, Colombia, by Phillip Hershkovitz to 2750 meters elevation, on May 29, 1952. This record and the information from the present study suggest that E. barbara inhabits the 2,500 meters of elevation at least in Colombia and Ecuador, and that the studies on its distribution have not been exhaustive . The use of new methodologies such as phototraping can yield new geographic and behavioral information of the species. We believe that continuous monitoring with camera traps in altitudinal ranges above 2500 m is necessary to evaluate E. barbara populations and their displacement patterns.

[Image: Figura-4-Registro-de-Eira-barbara-a-2708...T6-del.png]
Register of Eira barbara 2708 meters from elevation at station T.6 of the Protective Forest Cerro La Candelaria, Tungurahua, Ecuador.


[Image: Figura-2-Registro-de-Eira-barbara-a-3100...-de-la.png]
Register of Eira barbara at 3100 meters from
elevation in the T.T.7 station of the Nature Reserve
Chamanapamba, Tungurahua, Ecuador.

[Image: Figura-3-Registro-de-Eira-barbara-a-2665...-de-la.png]
Eira barbara register at 2665 meters elevation in the T.T.8 station of the Chamanapamba Nature Reserve, Tungurahua, Ecuador.

[Image: Figura-5-Registro-de-Eira-barbara-a-2766...10-del.png]
Registration of Eira barbara at 2766 meters elevation in the T.10 station of the Protective Forest Cerro La Candelaria, Tungurahua, Ecuador.

[Image: Figura-6-Registro-de-Eira-barbara-a-2766...10-del.png]
Registration of Eira barbara at 2766 meters of elevation in the T.10 station of the Protective Forest Cerro La Candelaria, Tungurahua, Ecuador.
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#19
From Shenzi:

Journal Reference:
Sáenz-Bolaños et al.: Tayra (Eira barbara) predation of a brown-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) Edentata: in press

Abstract:
Being strictly arboreal, sloths become more vulnerable to predation when on the ground. Records of such predation, however, are rare. Here we present video documentation of a tayra (Eira barbara) preying on a juvenile brown-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) in Barbilla National Park, Costa Rica. Tayras and other ground predators, plus human activities such as habitat fragmentation, are probably major factors influencing sloth life history and permanence in the ecosystem. Predation by tayras might be more common than we think, particularly in disturbed forests.


Attached Files
.pdf   Saenz-Bolanos et al_Tayra predation of a brown-throated three-toed sloth in Costa Rica.pdf (Size: 509.26 KB / Downloads: 1)
[Image: wildcat10-CougarHuntingDeer.jpg]
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#20
Predation by the tayra (Eira barbara) on the agouti and the iguana in Barro Colorado Island.


On 1 September 1974 at 10:30 A.M. on a sunny day, a tayra and iguana were observed as they fell from a tree located in the Allee Creek ravine to the north of the laboratory clearing on Barro Colorado Island. A few seconds later, an adult female iguana (45.5
centimeters snout-vent length) came running by on the ground with a female tayra in pursuit. The tayra easily kept pace with the iguana during the 30 meter (15 second) chase. The iguana wedged itself under some fallen logs, concealing much of its body,
but the tayra bit the iguana on the snout, inflicting puncture wounds, and severely mauled the iguana's right forelimb. The observer chased the tayra away so the iguana could be measured. The iguana was unresponsive to stimulation, but stilI alive. After
the human observers retreated, the female tayra returned and dragged the iguana away. During the whole episode, a male tayra paced back and forth at about 10 m distance but did not join in the attack.
On 27 June 1974 at 8:50 A.M. at a spot some 200 m from the site of the iguana attack, a pair of tayras briefly chased twin four-day old agoutis. The young animals retreated to their nest hole and the tayras investigated the entrance until the mother agouti, which had been lying nearby, successfully chased them from the vicinity of the nest.
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#21
OBSERVATION OF ATTEMPTED PREDATION OF A Derby's Woolly opossum (Caluromys derbianus) BY A TAYRA (Eira barbara) DURING DAYLIGHT IN BELIZE

I report here the attempted predation of a wholly opossum (Caluromys derbianus) by a tayra (Eira barbara). On December 26 2016, I was cannoning in the Macal River upstream from the towns of Santa Elena and San Ignacio in the Cayo District of west - central Belize (Figure 1).
I boarded the canoe close to the San Antonio town around 10:30 AM. The river was about 80 m wide and its margins were covered by a semi-green rainforest (Figure 2). The tallest trees were about 30 - 40 meters including Ceiba (Ceiba sp), guanacaste (Enterolobium cyclocarpum), and Fig (Ficus sp) trees, among many other species. Alone the riverbank I saw proboscis bats (Rhynchonycteris naso), Yucatan grey squirrels (Sciurus yucatanicus), green iguanas (Iguana iguana), and heard black howler monkeys (Allouatta pigra). There were many species of birds such as Keel-bi-lled toucan (Rhamphastos sulfuratus), collared aracari (Pteroglossus torquatus), and white-collared 
manakin (Manacus candei).

The day was cloudy and in the two-hour canoeing trip it slightly rained for about 10 minutes. Around 11:51 AM I and the other 4 people in my party suddenly heard a lot of noise and observed chaotic movements of the branches of some trees on the left margin of the river bank (approximate location: 170 06’ 51.40” N, 890 04’ 07.64”). The temperature was approximately 20°C. The forest was dense and the tallest trees were estimated to be around 30 m height. We saw a wholly opossum (Caluromys dervianus) running away from a tayra. Our presence disturbed the tayra and the opossum escaped climbing a very thin vine, likely no more that 2 cm diameter. As we got closer the riverbank, the tayra climb down the tree and ran away (Figure 3). From what I observed, it seem that the tayra had found the wholly opossum in its nest in a tree hollow and intended to prey upon it. Observing a tayra preying upon wholly opossum has not been reported before.

[Image: YUFSwyX.png]
[Image: PUVa3o5.png]
Figure 1. Location of the observation site in the Macal River, Cayo District, Belize. Photo: Gerardo Ceballos.

[Image: cPYN82w.png]
Figure 2. Macal River close to the observation site. Photo: Gerardo Ceballos.

[Image: wDe7d5G.png]
Figure 3. Tayra (Eira barbara) photographed after abandoning the attemted predation of the wholly 
opposum (Caluromys derbiabus). Photo: Gerardo Ceballos
.
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#22
@Shenzi: There is an error of the common name of the species Caluromys derbianus. Its common name is "Derby's Woolly Opossum" or "Central American Woolly Opossum", not "Wholly Opossum".
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#23
Variation in coat color of tayras (Eira barbara Linnaeus, 1758 - Carnivora, Mustelidae) in the State Biological Reserve of Sassafrás, Santa Catarina, South Brazil.

21 records of iraras were obtained, being six of individuals of white-yellow coloration and 15 of dark individuals. It was possible to analyze the presence or absence of yellow spots under the neck of six of the 15 records of dark coloration, being that of these only two (33.33%) had spots.

There was no significant difference between the frequencies of the color registration classes analyzed (c 2 = 3.04, p> 0.05). The calculated proportion was 2.67: 1. We also obtained three accounts of yellowish iraras, sometimes spotted and different places in the Reserve.

The coloration of yellowish fur observed in the State Biological Reserve of Sassafras can not be due to albinism. Albinism is characterized by the total absence of melanin, caused by a recessive anomaly, having as a peculiarity the pink color of the skin, red eyes and, in mammals, a white coat (Veiga & Pardo 1990, Sazima and Di Bernardo 1991, Veiga 1994, and in the case of women. all the individuals photographed presented the extremities of the legs and the tail, the snout and the pigmented eyes.

Although the number of bleached tayra records was less than that of tayras of dark coloration, the proportion of the number of records among the hair classes did not differ significantly from 1: 1, which, added to the accounts of local residents, indicates that yellowish white coloration is relatively common in the study area. In fact, several authors (Cabrera & Yepes 1960, Silva 1994, Cimardi 1996, Emmons 1997, Eisenberg & Redford 1999, Presley 2000) report variations in coat coloration in the wrath. In this way, variations in colorations and presence or absence of spots under the neck are fragile characteristics to be used in taxonomic studies.

[Image: 37f1.jpg]

[Image: 37f2.jpg]
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#24
meeting of tayras (Eira barbara) with red titi monkeys (Callicebus discolor).

On December 4, 2007 at 17.05 h, both members of titi monkey group K began alarm calling as they moved towards a gap created by a fallen tree. While calling, 
they moved quickly into a vine tangle and remained out of view. Two tayras then appeared from the direction that the titis had been facing when they started alarm calling. The tayras began to cross the gap on one of the branches of the fallen tree, moving in the direction of the monkeys. When the tayras saw the researcher (A.G.L.), they moved off in the opposite direction.
On February 2, 2007 at 13.42 h, the same group was resting relatively low in the canopy ( < 3 m). Two tayras were observed moving towards the titis while chasing a medium-sized rodent ( Myoprocta sp.) along the trail. The tayras did not initially notice the researcher (A.G.L.). The adult male titi started alarm calling and looking towards the tayras. One of the tayras looked at the monkeys and climbed 1 m up on 
a tree in front of them; the other tayra and the rodent were out of view by then. The titis continued alarm calling and moved quickly towards a vine tangle in the middle canopy (approximately 8 m). The tayra then noticed the researcher and left the area. The titis continued vocalizing for approximately 10 more minutes while out of view in the vine tangle.
Finally, on May 21, 2007 at 08.16 h, while observing titi monkey group B, A.G.L. heard an infant vocalizing agitatedly and immediately noticed a tayra approaching the infant in the same tree. The adult titi male moved quickly towards the infant and started making loud calls and showing piloerection. The infant climbed on the male’s back, and the male then moved quickly to an adjacent tree. The male continued vocalizing while staring at the tree with the tayra; the juvenile and adult female in the group, who were nearby but out of view, also gave alarm calls. The tayra oriented towards the male, but did not go into the tree the male had entered and left the area soon thereafter.

Notes on Interactions between the Tayra (Eira barbara) and the White-Fronted Capuchin (Cebus albifrons).

[Image: 6tkFcWq.png]
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#25
Behaviour of the Tayra Eira barbara near Medellín, Colombia: preliminary data from a video-capturing survey.

Eleven video clips (234 sec total) of at least two different individual Tayras (according to form and placement of the yellow back spot) were captured. Each video was considered an independent occasion, except for three obtained on 30 May 2010 which were consecutive (1–2 min apart) and the same individual was captured by the same camera.

Behaviour
Four behaviours that merit comments are summarised below. Date, time of day, description and approximate duration are provided.
Marking: three consecutive videos were captured on 30 May 2010 at 14h57, 14h59, and 15h00 about 1 m from the defecation site of another individual (see below). Neck, cheeks, throat and upper back were rubbed firmly (90 sec total) against an exposed 
root segment on the forest floor. Occasionally, the individual seemed to lick the root gently.
Defecating: this was the second most frequently filmed behaviour, occurring twice on the same spot. The same individual (a male) defecated at the same site on 13 (at 13h46) and 15 May 2010 (at 14h16) for two and one second, respectively. On both occasions the Tayra ran from the place once it finished defecating. Defecating at the same site suggests Tayras may defecate for territorial marking.
Escape: while rubbing on the root (see Marking section, above) the Tayra was disturbed by something not detected in the video on 20 May 2010 at 15h00. The Tayra shook its body and then rapidly climbed up the tree it was standing next to. It remained in the canopy for 15 sec, and then it climbed down (descended vertically head first) and ran away.
Foraging in pairs: A single video (18 sec) was obtained on 8 October 2010 at 17h07. One individual was roaming behind the other. Both ate the banana bait and kept sniffing around the site before continuing on their way.

Activity patterns
Morning peak: A single video clip was obtained on 24 May 2010 at 08h34.

Midday peak: Six video clips were obtained between 11h and 15h: one each day on 13 and 15 May 2010, and 27 January 2011, and three consecutive videos (considered same event) of the same individual on 30 May 2010 at 14h57, 14h59 and 15h00.

Afternoon peak: Four videos were obtained, on 24 May 2010, 27 August 2010, 8 October 2010 and 4 February 2011, between 17h00 and 18h00.
Some behaviours reported herein, such as two adults travelling together and tree climbing, were also reported from a study in a Belizean rain forest (Konecny 1989) and in the general overview 
of Emmons & Feer (1990). However, other literature describes the species as mainly solitary (e.g. Presley 2000).
Tayras exhibited diurnal activities at our study site with most activity in the afternoon. Although our data are too few to make a strong conclusion, they are congruent with previous observations about the daily activity patterns recorded in other Neotropical regions (Konecny 1989, Emmons & Feer 1990, González-Maya et al. 2009).
Our experience using Bushnell trophy cameras suggests that video-trapping versus still image capturing offers the possibility of recording data of an observed behaviour more completely than with still cameras. For example, our cameras running in still image mode would probably have not documented some fast Tayra behaviours observed here (e.g. defecation; climbing up and down), had they been performed during trigger time or the gap between 
pictures. In agreement with others (e.g. Bridges & Noss 2011), video trapping has the potential of offering new data about aspects of natural history and behaviour.
Several types of information have been collected from automatic camera surveys in still image mode, including patterns of relative abundance, density, distribution, habitat use and activity, all of which could be quantitatively analysed (Jiménez et al.2010). However, video-trapping probably has the potential of studying not just these mentioned parameters (although new analytical advances should be developed) but also valuable natural history data which provide more qualitative evaluation and appreciation not just for scientific proposal, but also for promulgation and education (Kays et al. 2009).
Video-trapping offers the possibility to record continuous movements of a behaviour with almost no interruption. Picture trapping experiences a more frequent lag between detection and recording as well as delays due to trigger time (at least on the model we used). Both still image capturing and video-trapping have allowed us to inventory mammal and bird species in Valle de Aburrá during our experience with aburranatural.org, but natural history data of some vertebrates have exclusively been recorded (or more easily identified and detected) by video recording. More over, notes on the Aburrá-Natural web-page are often more commented by readers and shared with others when videos (instead of pictures) are included (Delgado-V. et al. unpublished data).
Although new analytical advances should be developed in order to increase its use in the future (Kays et al. 2009), we promote the use of long-term automatic video-trapping versus still image capturing if acquiring basic natural history information is the main goal of a project. Still pictures offer accurate species identification (Meirelles et al. 2008) but they could be pieces of a natural history puzzle more difficult to analyse, describe, and disclose. In this sense, as we obtain more natural history data, we can 
better supplement management and conservation plans for Tayras and other species occurring not only in natural ecosystems but also in those ecosystems surrounding urban centres.
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#26
NEW RECORDS OF TAYRA (EIRA BARBARA LINNAEUS 1758) IN PUEBLA, CENTRAL MEXICO

The tayra (Eira barbara Linnaeus 1758) is considered as one of the carnivore species least studied in North and Central America (López González & Aceves Lara 2007). Its distribution extends from Mexico to Argentina but, in some countries its distributions is not defined. In Mexico it is considered as endangered (NOM-059-2010, SE-MARNAT. 2010) despite it has been reported in several states in the west in Sinaloa 
(Hall 1981) and in the east in states such as Veracruz (Presley 2000, Dias 2005), San Luis Potosí (Dalquest 1953), Tamaulipas (Hall 1981) and Querétaro (López González & Aceves Lara 2007). For Puebla, it was reported without geographical reference by Lopez-Wilchis and Lopez-Jardines (1999) however most of the museum records date before 1970 (Wieczorek 2001). A sight record of the species was obtained in the southeastern part of the state in the locality of Coxcatlán de Osorio (Ramírez-Pulido et al. 2005). There are no further records of the species, thus, it´s presence wasn´t confirmed recently in the Sierra Norte. Here, we report a recent record of Tayra and 
image of this species for the first time in the state of Puebla.
We obtained the picture while conducting camera trapping for the project “The Jaguar in Puebla: Presence and Human Relations” in the Natural Protected Area of the Hidrologic Basin of the Necaxa River. The study area is located in northern Puebla, 
encompassing an area of 5,709.82 km2 which include 55 municipalities. The methodology includes interviews with hunters and tanneries in different communities. Also, camera trapping is used by placing one or two camera traps per site and rotating them every month along the different areas (Ramírez-Bravo 2010). The picture was taken by a Camera trap (Bushnell Trophy; Kansas, United States) set during the month of June 2010 at a height of 40 -50 cm along a trail in a canyon with tropical rainforest 
with mahogany and red cedar among others and patches of coffee plantations, beside the Necaxa River near the community of Telolotla in the municipality of Zihuateutla (UTM coordinates: 2230864 N / 598387 E). A photographic record of an adult male tayra (Eira barbara) as it can be determined by the exposed testicles; was obtained at 19:48 hours on June 26 of 2010 near a cliff ridge at 480 m elevation (Fig. 1). This corresponds with the patterns observed previously of the species being present below 1200 m and active in the late afternoon (Presley 2000). During the same season we 
captured other species like armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), raccoon (Procyon lotor) and coati (Nasua narica).
Additionally we found a specimen (a mounted skin) in the region of Zapotitlan de Mendez (2212264 N / 634494) in the northern part of the state. The individual was a sub-adult female hunted approximately 5 years ago (circa 2005). The person declared that the species is common in the area and that he mounted a male approximately 20 years ago (circa 1990).
These records indicate the possibility of an extant population along the Northern 
Mountainous range of Puebla. However there is no clear information about connectivity with populations in nearby states (Fig. 2). Thus, it is necessary to develop a specific project for the species in the area as it is necessary to provide a more detailed 
distribution of the species along the Sierra Norte.

[Image: Photograph-of-a-Male-tayra-in-the-munici...Mexico.png]
Photograph of a Male tayra in the municipality of Zihuateutla in Puebla, México. 

[Image: Tayra-Eira-barbara-reports-in-Puebla-and-Veracruz.png]
Tayra ( Eira barbara ) reports in Puebla and Veracruz.
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#27
Predation of white faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus, Primates: Cebidae) by tolomuco (Eira barbara, Carnivora: Mustelidae).


On May 18, 1998, one of us (R. Robles) observed predation by a pair of tolomuco, cooperatively, in an adult white face capuchin. The event occurs in an area of humid tropical forest, with transition to dry forest, located in the Los Gigantes Trail, in the private reserve of Punta Leona, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. At 7:30 a.m., the sound of a troop of approximately 6 white-faced monkeys, moving at low altitude (approximately 3 m). Following the monkeys a tolomuco was observed threatening harassing them. Suddenly about 6 m from where the observer was, another tolomuco jumped from the foliage above a tree (2.5 m) where he was hiding, caught one of the
primates and fell to the ground while the carnivore seemed to bite the monkey's neck. After a short struggle and the shrieks of the monkey, which lasted about a minute, the scene he remained silent. The tolomuco that had attacked the monkeys went away on the ground carrying the unfortunate monkey in its jaws. The first attacker, who had been chasing the monkeys, climbed to a height of 3 m in a tree, and remained threatening the observer with sounds and showing his teeth in an aggressive attitude, at which time the person decided to finish the observation and retire.
The two individuals who participated in this hunt
cooperative of the monkeys is probably they were dealing with a male and a female, for the fact that tolomucos are usually found hunting alone, in pairs (male and female) or well in family groups that consist of a female with her puppies.
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