Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
Black Capuchin - Sapajus nigritus
Black Capuchin - Sapajus nigritus 

[Image: Cebus_nigritus_cucullatus_%28Black_capuc...orm%29.jpg]

Scientific classification 
Kingdom: Animalia 
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cebidae
Genus: Sapajus
Species: S. nigritus

Description: The males are between 42 and 56 cm long, and the females between 42 and 48 cm, with the tail measuring up to 56 cm. The weight varies between 2.6 and 4.8 kg. It has very prominent tufts, and the coat is a brown or dark gray, with the ventral parts tending to be more reddish. The populations to the south are black, and may represent a taxonomic group distinct from the populations further north.
The black capuchin was divided into 2 subspecies:
  • Sapajus nigritus nigritus: lives in Brazil including Serra dos Órgãos, Rio de Janeiro.
  • Sapajus nigritus cucullatus: it is distributed to the south of the distribution area of the species, it has a pair of tufts on the head.
[Image: b6fQmLw.jpg]

Distribution: It is located in the northeast of Argentina (province of Misiones) and the southeast of Brazil, from the south of Rio Doce and Rio Grande, north of Rio Grande do Sul, being typical of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil and the capuchin monkey with the southernmost occurrence that is known. It is located in a large number of forest habitats, from gallery forest to submontane and montane forests. It is adaptable and survives in secondary forest areas.

[Image: Black_Capuchin_area.png]

Diet and behavior: It feeds from foods of animal origin, to fruits and leaves. The diet changes according to the environment that occurs and the season of the year. In search of food, it was observed that they break Syagrus romanzoffiana coconuts with stones to obtain beetle larvae, demonstrating usability tools released spontaneously. They live in groups of 8 to 35 individuals in areas of 81-293 hectares, and the areas of the different groups may overlap. In these groups there are hierarchies between both males and females between. In general, there are 1 or 2 adult males.

[Image: Sapajus_nigritus_2.jpg]

Reproduction: They reproduce throughout the year, but births are concentrated in the rainiest times of the year in regions where there is seasonality. The pregnancy lasts between 149 and 158 days, and they give birth to one puppy at a time, in intervals that can vary from 19 to 35 months per female. Sexual maturity is reached females and 4 years of age.
[-] The following 2 users Like Shenzi's post:
  • Claudiu Constantin Nicolaescu, theGrackle
Abduction and potential case of predation of an infant howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) by a tufted capuchin monkey (Sapajus nigritus).

Our observation took place on 7 September 2011. A 
group of seven howler monkeys (one adult male, one 
subadult male, one juvenile male, two adult females, one juvenile female and one infant) was opportunistically observed while feeding on leaves in a tree at the edge of the forest, near the field research station. The adult male howler monkey started to roar and the entire group gathered in a line on the same branch. No calls from other surrounding groups could be heard, suggesting that the male was not just emitting position calls. After several minutes, an adult male capuchin monkey entered the same tree. The group of howlers seemed nervous and dispersed to avoid the intruder. The male capuchin slowly 
approached an adult female howler that was carrying 
a small infant ( Figure 1 ) and he moved around the tree, apparently to block her escape routes. Suddenly, this male grabbed the infant using one hand and his mouth to pull it away from the female ( Figure 2 ). The infant clung Forcefully onto the female ’ s fur with its tail and squealed, but it was ripped off by the capuchin. The male capuchin fled into the forest with the infant in his mouth. Interestingly, contrary to what has been reported with mantled howler monkeys during an agonistic interaction with tayras ( Eira barbara ; Asensio and G ó mes-Mar í n 2002 ), 
none of the howlers present tried to deter or expel the
capuchin during or after the interaction. Instead, they 
showed a lack of reaction and an absence of interference behaviours, similarly to what has been described during infant-directed aggression by spider monkeys ( Atelesbhybridus ; Rimbach et  al. 2012 ). The adult male howler continued to roar for several minutes after the abduction. After he stopped, the whole group, including the female previously carrying the infant, recommenced feeding in the tree.
Although we were unable to collect subsequent evi-
dence for prey consumption or infanticide (since the 
capuchin monkey fled into the forest), the behaviour of blocking the apparent escape routes and biting the infant was similar to the hunting technique of white-faced capuchins described in their predation of squirrels ( Rose et al. 2003 ). Furthermore, the fact that the capuchin fled with the infant in his mouth, which could result in a potentially fatal outcome, supports a possible case of predation.
An alternative explanation to predation or infant 
killing would be interspecific abduction followed by 
adoption. Indeed, there is at least one reported case of adoption of a baby marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus ) by a foster capuchin ( Sapajus libidinosus ) ( Izar et  al. 2006 ). In this case, the infant was successively adopted by two females of the same group ( Izar et al. 2006 ), a more typical pattern expected for female than for male primates ( Schino et al. 1993 , Maestripieri 2001 ). Considering that, in the present case, the abductor was an adult male and bearing in mind that his behaviour could potentially have been fatal to the infant, we argue that interspecific 
adoption is unlikely.
Agonistic interactions between capuchins and  howlers described at other sites sometimes involved
pulling or dragging of infant or juvenile howlers, but none was ever as drastic as the one reported here. Although cases of predation by capuchins on other primates have been reported, as far as we are aware, none has been documented on a monkey as large as a howler (for a review, see  Fragaszy et al. 2004 , Miller and Treves 2011 ). As a result, we propose that the observation described here may represent the first reported case of abduction and potential predation of a capuchin on an infant howler.
Predation in primates is an inherently rare event 
to observe from initiation to completion, making it dif-
ficult to be studied systematically. Therefore, all anecdotal observations are worth reporting to expand our knowledge on wild primates ’ behavioural ecology and foraging strategies.

[Image: Male-capuchin-monkey-A-approaching-a-fem...infant.png]
Male capuchin monkey (A) approaching a female howler monkey (B) carrying the infant (photo credit: E. Genty).

[Image: Male-capuchin-monkey-A-pulling-the-infan...monkey.png]
Male capuchin monkey (A) pulling the infant howler © away from the female howler monkey (B) before fleeing with the infant in his mouth (photo credit: E. Genty). 
[-] The following 2 users Like Shenzi's post:
  • Claudiu Constantin Nicolaescu, theGrackle

Forum Jump:

Users browsing this thread: 1 Guest(s)